33 terms

APHG Ch 10 Key Issue 3

Vocab flashcards for Rubenstein, chapter 10 Agriculture, key issue 3
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mixed crop and livestock farming
combines crops and livestock. Most crops are grown to feed animals. Animal producs are the farm's main source of income. Reduces seasonal variation in income because you can sell animal products all year round.
crop rotation
the farm is divided into a number of fields, and each field is planted with a different crop every few years. A year of fallow is included in the cycle
fallow
letting a field sit without growing anything on it. This helps replentish the nutrients in the soil
cereal grains
oats, wheat, rye, barley
crop rotation systems
used to be a 2-field system (cereal grain/fallow) but changed to a 3-field system (spring grain/winter grain/fallow). In the 1700s a 4-field system was used (root/rest crop/cereal/cereal)
rest crop
A crop, such as clover, that can be planted in place of fallow. It helps restore the soil.
Corn
the crop most grown in mixed crop/livestock (soybeans are second)
Corn Belt
Ohio to the Dakotas
Dairy farming
practiced on farms near urban areas. It has risen dramatically in LDCs, with India as the largest milk producer. They must be closer to cities because milk is highly perishable, so they want to cut down transport times
milkshed
the ring around a city from where milk can be shipped quickly enough without it spoiling
dairy places
Most milk in the east is sold to large cities. Farther west, most milk is processed into cheese and butter.
dairy challenges
very labor intensive (cows must be milked twice a day, every day), costs of feeding cows. Though the number of farmer with cows has decreased a lot, the total number of cows has only decreased a little. Milk production, however, has increased (even with less cows) because of an increased yield per cow.
grain
seed from various grasses, like wheat, corn, oats, barley, rice, and others. Commercial grain farmers sell to food-processing companies, not the consumer
wheat
most important grain crop. Grown mostly in the US (the "breadbasket") and Canada.
winter wheat
planted in the fall, grows strong roots to survive the winter, and is harvested in the summer
spring wheat
planted in spring, and harvested in late summer. Two thirds of all wheat is winter- or spring-wheat.
reaper
A machine that cuts grain standing in the field. It's quite grim.
combine
a machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans
ranching
commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area
cattle ranching
part of popular culture (cowboys!). Cattle were brought to America by Columbus on his second voyage, and multiplied by feeding on the frontiers of North/South America. Cattle ranchinc was started by Spanish/Portuguese immigrants and expanded because of the demand for beef in the east.
cattle trails
To transport the cattle to Chicago (where the slaughterhouses were) cowboys had to be driven hundreds of miles to Abilene. The Chisholm Trail was the most famous.
range wars
The US gov't sold open land to farmers which took away rancher's free grazing land. "Range wars" broke out between ranchers and farmers, but because of barbed wire, farmers won.
fixed ranching
herding cattle in one confined area instead of over large open areas
cow changes
when open ranching became fixed, new cattle breeds had to be found. Longhorns were bred for the long trip on the cattle trails, but Hereford cows were better for staying in one place.
ranching outside the US
the pampas (praries) of Argentina and Uraguay, Australia
ranching v pastoral nomadism
Ranching has bceome part of the commercial meat industry by being fixed and selling to large corporations, while pastoral nomadism herds animals as a source of food for themselves and are not confined by borders.
Mediterranean agriculture
More of a climate rather than a style of planting. The area around the Mediterranean sea is moist; has mild winters and hot, dry summers; very hilly. Transhumance is used in some cases (remember KI 2?). Olives and grapes are most important crops, but most land is devoted to cereal grains.
Horticulture
growing fruits, vegetables, and flowers (basis of Mediterranean agriculture)
commercial gardening and fruit farming
most popular in US Southeast. Called "truck farming," truck being a Middle English word meaning bartering. Truck farmers take full advantage of machines, and grow many fruits in demand in MDCs
specialty farmers
in New England, grow a few crops with limited but increasing demand
von Thunen model
proposed in 1826 by Johann von Thunen to explain how certain crops are chosen based on proximity to the market
choosing a crop to plant
a farmer compares two costs--the cost of the land vs the cost of transport to market. They want to find a crop that can be sold for more than the land price but is cheap to transport. As a result, farmers grow crops with high transport costs closer to cities.
von Thunen model details
he found that different types of crops were grown in concetric rings around cities. However, he didn't take into account demographic factors, like mountains or poor soil, or human factors, like suburban developments.