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According to Erikson, the major personality achievement of adolescence is development of


Sayuri is constructing her identity. Based on Eriksons theory, this process involves

defining what she values.

According to Erikson, teenagers in complex societies experience

an identity crisis.

Once formed, identity

continues to be refined in adulthood as people reevaluate earlier commitments and choices

Erikson called the psychological conflict of adolescence identity versus

role confusion.

Current theorists agree that for most young people, identity development is not traumatic and disturbing but, rather, a process of __________ followed by ___________.

exploration; commitment

Michael is a young adult who is trying out life possibilities, gathering important information about himself and his environment, and moving toward making enduring decisions. In doing so, Michael is probably

forging an organized self-structure

According to Erikson, someone who negatively resolves the psychological conflict of adolescence will experience

role confusion.

Thirteen-year-old Sarah describes herself as shy and outgoing. She also says she is a smart airhead. These disparities probably result from the expansion of Sarahs social world, which

creates pressure to display different selves in different contexts.

From middle to late adolescence, cognitive changes enable teenagers to

combine their traits into an organized system

Which of the following statements exemplifies 15-year-old Noahs awareness that psychological qualities can vary from one situation to the next?

I have a fairly quick temper.

Among older adolescents, __________ appear as key themes in self-concept.

personal and moral values

Landons parents wonder how his self-esteem will differentiate in adolescence. Landon will probably add which of the following dimensions of self-evaluation to those of middle childhood?

close friendship, romantic appeal, and job competence

Lilys parents are concerned about how her level of self-esteem will change during adolescence. You can tell them that for most young people, it


Rufuss parents provide inconsistent, negative feedback. Rufus probably relies on ________ to affirm his self-esteem.


Which of the following factors is predictive of high self-esteem in adolescence?

authoritative parenting

In adolescence, encouragement from teachers

predicts high self-esteem

Which of the following is true about identity development?

Adolescents well-organized self-descriptions provide a cognitive foundation for forming an identity.

When asked about her political beliefs, Blair responds, Oh, I dont know. It doesnt make much difference to me. Blaire is demonstrating identity


Shelby accepts her familys religious beliefs without question. She is characterized by


Laurent plans to major in engineering in college. When asked if he might change his career path, he responds, I might, but I doubt it. Ive spent a lot of time studying my options. Im pretty sure engineering is right for me. Laurent is demonstrating identity


Jacob has begun to question his parents political beliefs and attended several rallies to find out about alternatives. He is characterized by identity


Identity-foreclosed individuals

have committed themselves to values and goals without exploring alternatives.

Identity-diffused individuals

are apathetic, lacking both exploration and commitment.

Both ________ and ____________ are psychologically healthy routes to mature self-definition.

moratorium; identity achievement

Adolescents in moratorium resemble identity-achieved individuals in using a(n) ________________ cognitive style when making personal decisions and solving problems.

active, information-gathering

Jesse is an adolescent who is identity foreclosed. As such, he will tend to

fear rejection by people on whom he depends for affection and self-esteem

___________ individuals are the least mature in identity development.

Long-term diffused

Which of the following is true about parental influences on identity development?

Adolescents who feel attached to their parents but also free to voice their own opinions tend to be in a state of moratorium or identity achievement.

Teenagers with __________ are more involved in exploring relationship issues, such as what they value in close friends and in a life partner.

warm, trusting peer ties

__________ strongly influences the way adolescents construct a sense of self-continuity despite major personal changes.


Roni is an adolescent from an immigrant family. He is committed to obeying his parents and fulfilling family obligations, while also fitting in with his peers in school. As a result, Roni may experience

acculturative stress.

Which of the following is a strategy for helping minority adolescents resolve identity conflicts constructively?

respecting native languages and unique learning styles in school

Which of the following is true about bicultural identity?

Biculturally identified adolescents tend to have especially favorable relations with members of other ethnic groups.

Which of the following is true about Lawrence Kohlbergs Heinz dilemma?

Kohlberg emphasized that it is the way an individual reasons about the dilemma that determines moral maturity.

At Kohlbergs __________ level, morality is externally controlled.


Gilles finds it difficult to consider two points of view when presented with the Heinz dilemma. Instead, he focuses on fear of authority as a reason for behaving morally. Gilles is at which of Kohlbergs stages of moral development?

Stage 1: The punishment and obedience orientation

At Kohlbergs conventional level,

individuals believe that actively maintaining the current social system ensures positive relationships and societal order.

In response to the Heinz dilemma, Marlee says, No one will think you are bad if you steal the drug, but your family will think you are an inhumane husband if you dont. If you let your wife die, youll never be able to look anyone in the face again. Marlee is at which of Kohlbergs stages of moral development?

Stage 3: The good boygood girl orientation

At Kohlbergs Stage 2 of moral development, the instrumental purpose orientation, children

view right action as flowing from self-interest and understand reciprocity as equal exchange of favors.

Individuals at Kohlbergs _______________ level move beyond unquestioning support for their own societys rules and laws


In response to the Heinz dilemma, Dolph states, Even if his wife is dying, it is still Heinzs duty as a citizen to obey the law. If everyone started breaking the law, there would be no civilization. Dolph is at which of Kohlbergs stages of moral development?

Stage 4: The social-order-maintaining orientation

At Kohlbergs Stage 5 of moral development, individuals

regard laws and rules as flexible instruments for furthering human purposes.

In response to the Heinz dilemma, Ruby explains, It doesnt make sense to put respect for property above respect for life itself. Respect for human life is absolute. Ruby is at which of Kohlbergs stages of moral development?

Stage 6: The universal ethical principle orientation

Although Kohlberg proposes six stages of moral development,

most people never move beyond Stage 4

Because everyday decisions are complicated by practical considerations and mix cognition with intense emotion, the moral reasoning exhibited in such situations is generally

lower than that measured by Kohlbergs dilemmas.

Postconventional morality is

a highly reflective endeavor limited to a handful of people who have attained advanced education, usually in philosophy.

Research suggests that like Piagets cognitive stages, Kohlbergs moral stages are

loosely organized and overlapping

Carol Gilligan believes that feminine morality

emphasizes an ethic of care that Kohlbergs system devalues.

On hypothetical dilemmas, adolescent and adult females

display reasoning at the same stage as their male agemates and often at a higher stage

Kremlin, age 15, firmly asserts he has control over his clothing and hairstyle choices. Which of the following will Kremlin also argue is not subject to control by authority figures?


Adolescents who make the greatest gains in moral understanding have parents who

engage in moral discussions

Parents can foster adolescents moral understanding by

asking clarifying questions.

____________ is a powerful predictor of movement to Kohlbergs Stage 4 or higher.

Years of schooling

Which of the following is true about the influence of schooling on moral reasoning?

Attending college introduces young people to social issues that broaden their perspective-taking opportunities.

Interaction among peers who present differing viewpoints

promotes moral understanding.

Responses to moral dilemmas in collectivist cultures

are more other-directed than in Western cultures.

According to Kohlberg, mature moral thinkers

realize that behaving in line with their beliefs is vital for creating and maintaining a just social world.

Frank and Derol are both college students. Derol is functioning at a higher moral reasoning level than Frank. Which of the following statements is the most likely to be true?

Derol is more likely than Frank to defend victims of injustice

Mrs. Shigoka wants to promote a sense of moral self-relevance among her high school students. What type of classroom should she create?

a just educational environment, in which Mrs. Shigoka guides the students in democratic decision making and rule setting

Which of the following statements is true about the development of moral self-relevance?

Research has yet to discover the origins of a sense of moral self-relevance.

Teenagers from which country are the most likely to report being religious?

United States

Formal religious involvement

promotes responsible academic and social behavior.

Which of the following is true according to the pragmatic approach to morality?

Everyday moral judgments are practical tools that people use to achieve their goals.

Gender intensification

is stronger for girls than boys.

Which individual will likely show stronger gender intensification?

Tamar, a 14-year-old girl

Which of the following is the most likely to contribute to gender intensification in adolescence?

the magnification of sex differences in appearance caused by puberty

Which child is likely to be psychologically healthier?

Gabriella, a girl who has an androgynous gender identity

Seventeen-year-old Saffron strives to rely on herself and not her parents for decision making. Saffron is developing


Which the of following is associated with the development of autonomy in adolescence?

deidealization of parents

Mr. and Mrs. Lamberts two teenage children have high self-esteem and exhibit autonomy. Mr. and Mrs. Lambert probably incorporate which of the following parenting techniques?

authoritative parenting

Which of the following is linked to a variety of positive outcomes, such as prevention of delinquency, reduction in sexual activity, and positive psychological well-being?

consistent parental monitoring of daily activities, through a cooperative relationship in which the adolescent willingly discloses information

Throughout adolescence, __________ is the single most consistent predictor of mental health.

the quality of the parentchild relationship

Mild family conflict

informs parents of the changing needs and expectations of their children, signaling that adjustments in the parent child relationship are necessary.

The reduced time that Western teenagers spend with their parents most likely results from

the large amount of unstructured time available to teenagers.

Which family is likely to grant its teenager an appropriate degree of autonomy and experience less conflict with her?

Serenas family, in which both parents are financially secure, invested in their work, and content in their marriage

Teenagers who develop well despite family stresses tend to have a(n)

bond with an adult outside the family who cares deeply for their well-being.

During adolescence, sibling

relationships often become less intense, in both positive and negative feelings.

Teenage brothers Martin and Chris perceive mild differences in parental affection. Such differences probably

predict greater sibling warmth.

Teenagers in the United States spend more time together outside the classroom than teenagers in Europe and Asia because

U.S. teenagers experience a shorter school year and less demanding academic standards.

Matthew, age 14, is likely to report that the most important characteristic of friendship is

psychological closeness, supported by mutual understanding.

Self-disclosure to __________ declines in early adolescence.


Lizzie and Danielle, both age 13, are best friends. Their discussions probably focus on

self-disclosure and supportive statements.

Teenage boys discussions tend to involve more ________________ than girls conversations.

competition and conflict

When focusing on deeper thoughts and feelings, adolescent friends Glenda and Anne repeatedly mull over problems and negative emotions, which sometimes triggers anxiety and depression. Glenda and Anne are demonstrating


Teenagers use of online interaction, such as instant messaging, seems to

support friendship closeness.

Which of the following is true about online communication?

In unmonitored chat rooms, teenagers are likely to encounter degrading racial and ethnic slurs and sexually obscene and harassing remarks.

Which of the following is true about adolescent friendships?

Close friendships provide a foundation for future intimate relationships.

Twelve-year-old Isobel spends most of her time with a group of six girls, who are friends and have similar family backgrounds, attitudes, and values. This group is Isobels


Which of the following is true about membership in a crowd?

Membership in a crowd is based on reputation and stereotype.

Brains, jocks, populars, and burnouts are typical examples of teenage


Hayley and her girlfriends are becoming interested in dating. Which of the following is probably true about Hayley and her friends?

They will become members of a mixed-sex clique before they begin solo dating.

Which of the following statements is true about dating?

Secure attachment to parents in infancy and childhood, together with recollections of that security in adolescence, predicts the quality of teenagers romantic ties.

Early dating

is related to drug use, delinquency, and poor academic achievement.

Mr. Dunn is concerned about his 16-year-old daughter, who has been exchanging text messages with one particular boy. You should tell him that

close romantic ties promote sensitivity, self-esteem, and identity development.

High school seniors Geoff and Joy have been dating steadily for eight months. This is the first romance for each of them. How many relationships like theirs survive high school?

about 50 percent

The most common psychological problem of adolescence is


Ken, age 14, has trouble concentrating, sleeps excessively, eats little, and has low energy. These might be symptoms of


Teenage girls are ______ as likely as boys to report persistent depressed mood.


The suicide rate

increases over the lifespan, but jumps sharply at adolescence.

Despite girls higher rates of depression, the number of boys who kill themselves exceeds the number of girls by a ratio of

3 or 4 to 1.

Which group has the highest adolescent suicide rate?

Native Americans

Which of the following is true about adolescent suicide?

Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths are at a high risk for suicide.

Which of the following contributes to the sharp rise in suicide from childhood to adolescence?

personal fable

When asked directly and confidentially about lawbreaking, _________ teenagers admit to having committed some sort of offense, usually a minor crime.

almost all

Violent crime by adolescents is

mostly the domain of boys.

Which of the following is true about factors related to juvenile delinquency?

Families of delinquent youth tend to be low in warmth, high in conflict, and characterized by harsh, inconsistent discipline and low monitoring.

One of the best ways to combat adolescent delinquency is

through prevention, beginning early in childhood.

Which of the following is true about persistent adolescent delinquency?

Early-onset youths seem to inherit traits that predispose them to aggressiveness.

As a child, David was negative, willful, and physically aggressive. By age 8, he was already engaging in petty theft. Jamie was a happy child who did well in school but began displaying antisocial behavior around age 13 and gradually moved to more severe delinquent acts. Which of the following is true about David and Jamie?

David is at higher risk for leading a life full of aggression and criminality.

Which of the following is a characteristic of early-onset delinquency?

willful and physically aggressive behavior as early as age 2

Some studies on zero tolerance policies show that they

may heighten school dropout and antisocial behaviors.

Which of the following is true about multisystemic therapy aimed at preventing delinquency?

t leads to improvement in parentchild relations and school performance.

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