According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of middle childhood is
industry versus inferiority.
Jacob, a sixth grader, entered the middle school academic bowl. According to Erikson, by entering the competition, Jacob shows
According to Erikson, a sense of _________ can develop in middle childhood when family life fails to prepare children for school life or when teachers and peers destroy childrens feelings of competence and mastery with negative responses.
Eleven-year-old Leah has developed a sense of competence at a number of useful skills and tasks. She has a positive but realistic self-concept and takes pride in her accomplishments. According to Erikson, Leah has
positively resolved the psychological conflict of middle childhood.
During the school years, children refine their __________, organizing their observations of behaviors and internal states into general dispositions.
Beginning in middle childhood, childrens self-descriptions start to emphasize
both negative and positive characteristics.
School-age children use frequent _________ in their self-descriptions.
Which of the following statements is true about the development of self-concept?
Perspective-taking skills are crucial for developing a self-concept based on personality traits.
As school-age children move into adolescence, self-concept is increasingly vested in
feedback from close friends.
Sam is an American sixth grader. Compared to his Asian agemates, when asked to describe himself, Sam is more likely to say which of the following?
I like hockey.
Compared to his Western agemates, Chao, who lives in China, will most likely describe himself by referencing his
group memberships and relationships.
Self-esteem adjusts to a more realistic level in middle childhood largely as the result of
feedback about self-performance compared with that of peers.
During childhood and adolescence, perceived __________ correlates more strongly with overall self-worth than any other self-esteem factor.
Which of the following statements is true about self-esteem in elementary school?
It declines during the first few years of elementary school and then, from fourth grade on, rises for the majority of young people.
From middle childhood on, individual differences in self-esteem
become increasingly stable.
Self-esteem takes on a __________ structure in the mid-elementary school years.
Which of the following is true about cultural influences on self-esteem?
Asian children score lower in self-esteem than North American children.
Compared to his Caucasian-American agemates, Leonard, an African-American fourth grader, is more likely to have
higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of ethnic pride.
Children whose parents use a(n) _____________ child-rearing style feel especially good about themselves.
____________ parenting is associated with unrealistically high self-esteem.
Nadias parents are repeatedly disapproving and insulting. As a result, Nadia probably __________ and relies heavily on __________ to affirm her self-worth.
needs constant reassurance; peers
Mr. and Mrs. Rodriguez want to foster their sons self-esteem. Which of the following would you suggest?
Encourage him to strive for worthwhile goals because his eventual achievement will foster his self-esteem.
Children who are high in academic self-esteem and motivation make _________ attributions, crediting their successes to __________.
When Tyler receives a high test grade, he attributes it to luck, but when he gets a low test grade, he attributes it to not being smart. Tyler has developed
Over time, the ability of __________ children no longer predicts their performance.
When Sally fails, her parents say, You cant do that, can you? Its OK if you quit. Sally probably will develop
Despite their higher achievement, _______ often blame poor performance on __________.
In contrast to Americans, Asians focus more on ________ because ______________.
failure; it indicates where corrective action is needed
Teachers who are ________ and emphasize __________ tend to have mastery-oriented students.
helpful; learning over getting good grades
Attribution research shows that
well-intended messages from adults sometimes undermine childrens competence.
Marlena is enrolled in an intervention program that encourages learned-helpless children to believe they can overcome failure by exerting more effort. This approach is known as
Which of the following statements is true about self-conscious emotions in middle childhood?
Pride motivates children to take on further challenges, whereas guilt prompts them to strive for self-improvement.
Nine-year-old Marlons grandmother comes to live with his family. She is overly harsh and uses insensitive reprimands to shame him when he has done something wrong. Which of the following is likely?
Marlon will experience a sharp drop in self-esteem and will display depression and intense anger toward his grandmother.
Compared to preschoolers, school-age children are more likely to explain emotion by referring to __________ than to __________.
internal states; external events
During middle childhood, childrens emotional understanding develops as they become aware that
people can feel more than one emotion at a time.
Danielle saw a man carrying a sign that said Im hungry. She took the mans perspective, imagined how he felt, and asked her mom if she could give her allowance to the man so that he could buy some food. Danielle has developed
When Ericas best friend makes her angry, she takes a deep breath and counts to ten. Erica is using
Which of the following is true about emotional self-regulation in middle childhood?
By age 10, most children shift adaptively between problem-centered and emotion-centered coping.
Andrew has well-developed emotional self-regulation. He feels that he is in control of his emotional experiences. Andrew has acquired
a sense of emotional self-efficacy.
Which of the following is true about moral development?
By middle childhood, children have had time to internalize rules for good conduct, which leads them to become considerably more independent and trustworthy.
Martina recognizes that other people can have different thoughts and feelings from her own, but she frequently confuses the two. Martina is displaying behavior consistent with Level ____ of Selmans stages of perspective taking.
Fernando has reached the self-reflective level of Selmans stages of perspective taking. Which of the following statements is most likely true about Fernando?
He can step into another persons shoes and view his own thoughts, feelings, and behavior from the other persons perspective.
Kendall understands that third-party perspective taking can be influenced by one or more systems of large societal values. According to Selmans theory of perspective taking, Kendall is in what age range?
14 to adult
Which of the following is true about perspective taking?
Children with poor social skills have great difficulty imagining others thoughts and feelings.
When children in diverse cultures challenge adult authority, they typically do so
within the personal domain.
By the end of middle childhood, children display a strong desire for
Maddy spends most of her time with a particular set of friends. Within this group, there are specific standards of behavior, a specialized dress code, and identified leaders. Maddy is most likely
part of a peer group.
Research on peer groups during middle childhood shows that
within peer groups, children learn cooperation, leadership, followership, and loyalty to collective goals.
In middle childhood, __________ contributes to the development of trust and sensitivity.
Once a friendship forms, ________ becomes its defining feature.
Studies of friendship during middle childhood show that
by age 8 or 9, most children say they have only a handful of good friends.
Research on aggressive childrens friendships reveals that
the social problems of aggressive children operate within their closest peer ties.
When classmates are asked to rate each others likeability, __________ children get many positive votes, whereas __________ children are seldom mentioned.
On a measure of peer acceptance, Michael received a large number of positive and negative votes. Michael would be considered a __________ child.
On a measure of peer acceptance, Dustin was seldom mentioned either positively or negatively. Dustin would be considered a ___________ child.
__________ children are at the highest risk for poor school performance, antisocial behavior, substance abuse, and delinquency.
The majority of popular-prosocial children combine __________ and __________ competence.
Harrison is a popular-antisocial child. Which characteristic is he likely to display?
He is athletically skilled but is a poor student who causes trouble and defies adult authority.
Rejected-aggressive children are
deficient in perspective taking and emotional self-regulation.
Skye, a rejected-withdrawn child, is most likely
very concerned about being scorned and attacked.
Which of the following is true about controversial and neglected children?
Controversial children display a blend of positive and negative social behaviors.
Jos is a rejected-withdrawn child who has developed a learned-helpless approach to peer difficulties. This means that Jos
assumes that he will never be liked, no matter what he does.
Research has shown that parents promote gender stereotypes by
behaving in a more mastery-oriented fashion with sons than with daughters.
Which of the following statements is true about peer victimization?
Biologically based traits, such as an inhibited temperament and a frail physical appearance, contribute to victimization.
Research on peer victimization shows that
developing a school code against bullying can reduce peer victimization.
Research shows that school-age children
rate masculine occupations as having higher status than feminine occupations.
School-age children are likely to view which of the following activities as nearly as bad as a moral transgression?
5-year-old Mark nail wearing polish
From third grade to sixth grade, boys ___________ their identification with masculine personality traits, whereas girls identification with feminine personality traits __________.
Which of the following is true about gender typicality?
Childrens psychological well-being depends, to some degree, on feeling that they fit in with their same-sex peers.
Octavio feels satisfied with his gender assignment, which consequently makes him happy. Which of the following selfevaluations reflects Octavios gender identity?
Dwayne feels that his parents and peers disapprove of his knitting hobby. His parents have tried to encourage him to consider other hobbies, such as woodworking or coin collecting. Dwayne is distressed and stops knitting. Which of the following accurately describes Dwaynes gender identity self-evaluation?
felt pressure to conform to gender roles
Which of the following is true about gender identity and behavior in middle childhood?
Children who experience rejection because of gender-atypical personality traits suffer profoundly.
Despite the concerns of middle childhood, child rearing becomes easier for those parents who established a(n) ___________ style in the early years.
Mr. and Mrs. Pribesh have begun to change how they supervise their son. While they exercise general oversight, they now allow him to take charge of moment-by-moment decision making. The Pribeshes are engaging in
Effective coregulation is based on a(n)
cooperative relationship between parent and child based on give-and-take and mutual respect.
Which of the following statements is true about parentchild relationships in middle childhood?
When both parents are present, fathers engage in as much caregiving as mothers.
In middle childhood, the amount of time children spend with parents
Which of the following is supported by research on sibling rivalry?
Sibling rivalry tends to be more frequent among siblings who are close in age.
Research demonstrates that only children __________ compared to children with siblings.
are higher in self-esteem and achievement motivation
Which of the following is an accurate statement about divorce rates?
About two-thirds of divorced parents marry again.
Which of the following statements is true about the immediate consequences of divorce?
Family conflict often rises in newly divorced households as parents try to settle disputes over children and possessions.
In the United States, the majority of single mothers with young children
live in poverty.
Noncustodial fathers who see their children only occasionally tend to take on a(n) __________ style of parenting.
Mr. and Mrs. Frishman recently divorced. Their 5-year-old son is likely to
blame himself for the marital breakup.
Which of the following is true about childrens temperament and sex differences in adjustment to parental divorce?
Boys active and noncompliant behaviors tend to increase in divorcing households where parental conflict and inconsistent discipline are common.
The overriding factor in positive adjustment following divorce is
shielding the child from family conflict and using authoritative child rearing.
Research on the long-term consequences of divorce indicates that
most children show improved adjustment by two years after divorce.
Research shows that divorce mediation
increases cooperation in child rearing.
Jennifer and Joels children reside with Joel and see Jennifer on a fixed schedule. Both parents have an equal say in important decisions about their childrens upbringing. Which type of custodial arrangement do they have?
According to research on blended families, which child is most likely to have adjustment problems when his or her mother remarries?
Selma, a 15-year-old girl
Marty, who has two children from a previous marriage, has just remarried and now has two stepchildren. Based on information in your text, you can anticipate that
Martys contact with his biological children will decline.
Children whose mothers enjoy their work outside the home and remain committed to parenting ___________ than children of stay-at-home mothers.
get better grades in school
Research shows that maternal employment
leads fathers to take on greater child-rearing responsibilities.
Part-time maternal employment and flexible work schedules are associated with
good child adjustment.
Which of the following is true about child care for school-age children?
Low-SES children who participate in after-care programs exceed their self-care counterparts in classroom work habits, academic achievement, and prosocial behavior.
Beginning in middle childhood, a common fear is
the possibility of personal harm.
Children in Western nations mention ___________ as the most common source of their fears.
exposure to negative information in the media
Often school phobia can be traced to
Elliott, age 11, is suddenly afraid to go to school. Which of the following is the best advice you can give to Elliotts parents?
Firmly insist that he return to school, and train him in how to cope with difficult situations.
Research on child sexual abuse indicates that
the abuser is most often a parent or someone the parent knows well.
Children who ____________ are especially vulnerable to sexual abuse.
live in homes with a constantly changing cast of characters
Goran is a child victim of war. Research shows that Goran is likely to experience
an increase in anxiety and depression.
Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, children in Public School 31 in Brooklyn, New York, unlike many war-traumatized children in the developing world,
received immediate intervention, which included a trauma curriculum.
Which of the following is true about the consequences of child sexual abuse?
Repeated sexual abuse is associated with central nervous system damage.
The best way to reduce the emotional trauma of child sexual abuse is to
prevent sexual abuse from continuing.
Which of the following statements about resilience is true?
Resilience enables children to use internal and external resources to cope with adversity.