75 terms

Chapter 13&14

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Terms in this set (...)

Personality
Is the consistent, enduring and unique characteristics of a person
Four purposes for personality theories
Discover patterns to the way people behave , explain the differences among individuals, explain how people conduct their lives
Unconscious
Freud focused on the influence of what on our personality and behavior
Unaware, behavior
The unconscious is the part of our mind that contains material of which we are what, but that strongly influences conscious what
ID, ego, superego
What are the three basic psychological structures according to freud
ID, pleasure
The what is our reservoir of instinctual and biological urges and operates on what principle (what I want to do)
Superego, moral
The what learns and incorporates the ideals of society and operates on what principle ( what I should do)
Ego, reality
What is rational and thoughtful and operates on what principle ( what I can do)
Ego
What structure is responsible for appeasing the other two
defense mechanisms
What are used by the ego to avoid recognizing ideas or emotions that may cause us anxiety
Distort, necessary
Defense mechanisms can do what to reality, operates unconsciously and may be what for psychological well being
Regression
What is going back to an earlier, less mature pattern of behavior
displacement
What occurs when you transfer an idea or impulse from a threatening or unsuitable object to a less threatening object.
Denial
What is the refusing to accept the reality of anything upsetting
Projection
What is seeing your own faults in others
Repression
What occurs when you push anxiety causing ideas into the unconscious
Reaction formation
What is acting the opposite of how you really feel to keep your true feelings hidden
Rationalism
What is using self deception to justify unacceptable behavior or ideas
Sublimation
What occurs when you channel basic impulses into socially acceptable behavior
Identification
What occurs when you associate with people of a higher status in order to increase your own status
Compensation
What involves focusing on areas of success rather than areas of failure
Intellectualism
What involves describing painful or emotional personal events in academic terms
5
Freud identified how many stages of psychological development
Conflict
In each stage what is encountered
Traits
Unresolved conflict can lead to carrying that stages What into childhood
Oral
The first stage of development identified by Freud was what stage
Anal
This stage develops when self control becomes a vital issue to children
Phidile
During what stage do children develop a string attachment to the opposite sex parent and view the same sex parent as a rival
Oedipus complex
What name did Freud give to a boy desiring his mother and fearing castration from his father
Penis envy
What did Freud say that girls experience during the phallic stage
Electra,womb
In response to Freud later psychologist said that females experience what complex, and men have what kind of envy
Latency stage
During which stage do we retreat from conflict
Genital
What is the final stage of development according to freud
Infancy, and childhood
Although controversial Freud was the first psychologist to emphasize the importance of what and what in personality development
Unified
Freud was also the first to propose what theory to understand and explain human behavior
Develops
Freud was the first to demonstrate how personality does what in a person
Carl juny
Which psychologist believed that we have a collective unconscious where we store human concepts shared by all people across all cultures
Archetype
What are the structural components of the collective unconscious
Inferiority
Alfred Adler felt that the driving force of our personality is a desire to overcome feelings of what
inferiority complex
What is a pattern of avoiding feelings of inadequacy rather then trying to overcome their source
Karen Horney
Who believed that children raised in a loving and secure atmosphere could avoid the psycho-sexual conflicts proposed by freud
External, internal
Behaviorism feels that what forces, but not what forces influence shape
Predicting, controlling, understanding
b.F. Skinner was concerned with what three things
Social cognitive theory
Which theory states that personality is acquired not only through reinforcement but also through observational learning
Albert Bandura
Which psychologist is associated with social cognitive theory
Humanistic Psychology
Which theory focuses on personal growth and free will
Self actualization
What realized ones unique potential
Perceive reality accurately, problem centre rather than self center, spontaneous appreciate all things even simple,
Things Abraham Maslow found in healthy people who achieved self actualization
Limited, defensive
Carl Rogers found that the greater the gap between the person itself, and more what and what a person becomes
Self
Your what is the image of who you are and what you value
Conditions of worth
What are the conditions a person must meet in order to regard yourself positively
Positive regard
What is viewing yourself in a favorable light due to supportive feedback received from interacting with others
Fully functioning
What label do we give someone whose person self coincide
Conditioned positive regard
When your significant others value your for what you are in your entirety, what are they providing you with
Cognitive theory
Which theory states that how we think impacts how we act ( our personality)
Trait
What is a tendency to react to a situation in a way that remains stable over time
Robust five
Extraversion, openess to experiment, agreeableness, emotional stability, consciousness
Great, short
The goal of psychological testing is to find out a what deal about a person in what period of time
Reliability
What is the ability to yield the same result under a variety of circumstances
Standard
If a test is what that means that it is administered and scored the same way every time and that an average score has been established
Validity
Is the ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure
Intelligence
What is the ability to acquire new ideas and new behavior and to adapt to new situations
False
True or false, we have come up with an agreed upon method for testing intelligence
Alfred binet
Who is the father of intelligence testing
Standard
What is the most commonly used intelligence test today
Heredity
Which has been proven to be more influential in intelligence, heredity, or environment
Cultural bias
What may lead to certain groups of people scoring lower on an intelligence test not because they aren't intelligent but because the wording of the question may be unfamiliar
Achievement test
Which type of test it is used to discover how much a person has already learned
Aptitude
The sat is and example of what kind of test, which is meant to predict how well you can learn a new skill
Interest inventory
What is used to determine a persons preferences
Characteristics, problems
A personality test is used to assess an individuals what and identify their what
Personality
What test provide limited or forced choice answers
Projective objective
What test allows participants to respond freely
Mmpi and cpi
What are two examples of objective tests
Tat and rit
What are two examples of a projective test
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