C. True precocious puberty is a diagnosis of exclusion where the sex steroids are increased by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, with increased pulsatile GnRH secretion. CNS abnormalities associated with precocious puberty include the following: tumors (e.g., astrocytomas, gliomas, germ cell tumors secreting human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG]); hypothalamic hamartomas; acquired CNS injury caused by inflammation, surgery, trauma, radiation therapy, or abscess; or congenital anomalies (e.g. hydrocephalus, arachnoid cysts, suprasellar cysts). These conditions are not likely in the presence of a normal work-up in this patient. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia usually presents in the neonatal period and is associated with ambiguous genitalia. McCune Albright Syndrome is characterized by premature menses before breast and pubic hair development. An ovarian neoplasm is unlikely with a normal pelvic ultrasound. A. The likely cause of this patient's sudden onset of symptom is an increase in androgens due to a tumor. Hirsutism is often the result of a benign condition, however, may be a sign of significant disease if sudden in onset and coupled with virilization. Virilization in the female may be manifested by frontal hair thinning, oily skin or acne, deepening of the voice, clitoral enlargement, menstrual irregularities, and increased muscle strength. Possible causes of virilization include PCOS, hypothyroidism, androgen producing tumors (ovarian, adrenal, or pituitary), and anabolic steroid use. A rare cause may be late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia. A. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines osteopenia (low bone mass) as -1 to -2.5. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Committee Opinion recommends that physicians interpret T scores between −1.0 and −2.5 in combination with the patient's risk factors for fracture. The authors state: "Clinicians must be careful because the diagnosis of osteopenia often is interpreted as indicating a pathologic skeletal condition or significant bone loss, neither of which is necessarily true. Until better models of absolute fracture risk exist, postmenopausal women in their 50s with T scores in the osteopenia range and without risk factors may well benefit from counseling on calcium and vitamin D intake and risk factor reduction to delay initiation of pharmacologic intervention." Some of the risk factors for fracture include prior fracture, family history of osteoporosis, race, dementia, history of falls, poor nutrition, smoking, low body mass index, estrogen deficiency, alcoholism, and insufficient physical activity. B. This patient is having difficulty conceiving after trying for one year. Based on her history, the most likely underlying factor is tubal disease, as she has a history of being hospitalized for a pelvic infection, most likely pelvic inflammatory disease. This can cause adhesions and blockage of the tubes, which is best assessed with a hysterosalpingogram to evaluate the uterine cavity and tubes. After a single episode of salpingitis, 15% of patients experience infertility. Hysteroscopy will assess the uterine cavity and while sometimes used during a work up for infertility, it does not provide sufficient information about tubal patency. Progesterone levels, a Clomiphene challenge test or cervical mucous monitoring are used at times with infertility workups, but, in a young patient of normal BMI and with normal cycles, it is unlikely to find major ovulatory dysfunction.