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Big History Threshold 9
Terms in this set (27)
The expansion of exchange networks until they begin to reach across the entire world. This began around 1500 CE and has accelerated rapidly since 1880. During this time a gradual "interdependence" has occurred between many nations and a global trade/exchange network has resulted.
The aggressive efforts by one nation to dominate or control the resources of another nation
A period of technological innovation starting in England late in the 18th century that resulted in a major change in the way goods were produced, and caused a major shift in global economics
Dividing history up into periods of time. Often these periods of time have defining characteristics or distinct geological forces that act within that time period. Doing this allows historians to refer to a time period and make generalizations.
When a new idea, product, or method of doing something is introduced
Information that is widely distributed (often through media) to further the purposes of a particular cause or idea, with the intent of influencing people to think in a certain way
Money given by a defeated nation to the victorious nations to compensate for war-time damages
An approach to government that favors ordinary citizens as opposed to traditional ruling parties, by elites
The idea that citizens of a country are part of something bigger than themselves and that they are loyal to a set of national ideals and practices. Often citizens believe their country is superior to others and have a desire for independence from foreign rule
A mutually beneficial relationship between two nations forged to further common interests or prevent attack from common enemies
An economic system in which products and production means are owned by individuals or private citizens. Competition rules the marketplace
The system of exchange of goods and services based on supply and demand
The total value of all the goods and services produced within a country
Formed from the falling of ancient trees, that were covered with water, which prevented O2
and bacteria from decaying them fully. The pressure and compression resulted in a dark, ignitable rock made of carbon
Watt & the
James Watt invented the Steam Engine in England in 1776, which used coal to burn water and convert it to steam. The energy released from this process released steam pressure in a vacuum that would move a piston.
When a nation makes its own decisions, and controls its own courses of action, free of outside influence from other nations. Often the people of that nation drive the decisions of their government
A time period characterized by climate change and rising global temperatures and Carbon emissions that have caused differences in the chemical makeup of the atmosphere. This time period has also been characterized by a movement of plants and animals to regions of the Earth they do not originate from. Through the movement of these products and collective idea shared through trade networks, the quality of life for most humans has improved.
3 factors of human control over the biosphere
The biosphere has been transformed by humans due to 3 major reasons:
b) Increasing trade/commerce
c) Use of fossil fuels
Average global temperatures have risen, sea levels have risen due to the melting of the polar ice caps, deforestation and lands have been depleted due to over-mining and farming. Carbon emissions have changed the makeup of the atmosphere. All of these factors have led to what scientists refer to as "climate change"
Causes of the rise of Nazism and Hitler
The economy of Germany was in a state of tremendous depression
The people were desperate for change
Hitler was a dynamic leader and great speaker and promised a unified Germany, and jobs
Resources were running out and the current Republic was not meeting the people's needs
Long and Short Term Causes of WW1
SHORT-TERM: The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary
LONG-TERM: Militarism (buildup of militaries), Nationalism (rise in pride in nations and desire for self-determination), Alliances that formed over time and usually were tied to cultural similarities, and Imperialism (desire of nations to overtake other, weaker nations to gain territories)
The three major fuels (Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas) are being extracted at exponential rates and will eventually run out. The dependence on these fuels is a major concern in the coming century
(US and World)
a) Overproduction and Over plowing of fields in the United States
b) The Stock Market Crash of 1929
c) The inability of defeated nations from WWI to repay war debts, thereby creating a worldwide debtor situation
d) Overuse of credit by citizens
e) Bank failures
f) Rising unemployment due to less consumption and spending by consumers which resulted in halted production/loss of jobs
Led the independence movement in India vs. British rule through tactics of non-violence. This included the famous Salt March.
The concept that each person has several different cultural, and ancestral ties that are woven together. This also includes the different roles and partnerships that each individual possesses or plays in their world.
"natural rights" and that all men have certain rights they are "born into". His beliefs helped inspired the writers of the Declaration of Independence.
Treaty of Versailles said that Germany would be blamed for WWI and have to pay war reparations to winning countries and the rise of Communism in Russia. A "League of Nations" was proposed by President Wilson, but the US never joined it.
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