APWH Chapter 10 Self Test
Terms in this set (20)
C (Before 1000 CE western Europe had no cities that could compare in size or splendor to Constantinople. Since 500 CE, cities had decayed in the West, as had long-distance trade.)
In comparison to Byzantium, the Latin West before 1000 CE
a. was more politically unified.
b. had a Christian church more firmly under the control of political authorities.
c. possessed no city that could compare to the splendor of Constantinople.
d. was more integrated into the Silk Roads.
A (The western portion of the empire was far less wealthy than its eastern counterpart.)
Which of the following was NOT a factor that left the western part of the Roman Empire more vulnerable to collapse than the eastern half at the end of the fourth century CE?
a. The western portion was if anything wealthier than the eastern portion, but squandered its resources foolishly.
b. The western portion possessed a much less easily defended capital.
c. The western portion had a longer frontier to defend than the eastern portion.
d. The western portion possessed a weaker army and navy.
B (The rapid expansion of the Islamic Arab Empire included their conquest of substantial Byzantine territories, although a more compact Byzantine Empire survived and remained a major force in the Eastern Mediterranean.)
In the seventh century CE, the Byzantine Empire lost large swaths of its territory along the coast of North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean to
a. a resurgent Persian Empire.
b. Arab forces.
c. Western crusaders.
d. the Ottoman Turks.
B (Ancient Greek learning transmitted from the Byzantine Empire had an immensely stimulating impact among scientists, philosophers, theologians, and other intellectuals in both Western Europe and the Islamic World.)
The Byzantine Empire
a. fell along with the Persian Empire to Arab forces in the eighth century.
b. transmitted ancient Greek learning to both western Europe and the Islamic world.
c. produced few products with which to trade along the Silk Roads.
d. was able to bring the eastern and western branches of the Christian Church back together under its leadership.
B (The Byzantine emperor claimed to govern all creation as God's earthly representative, styling himself the "peer of the Apostles" and the "sole ruler of the world.")
The Byzantine state
a. feared rebellion, so it strictly separated civil and military authority in the provinces by banning generals from raising armies from the peasantry of their regions.
b. was ruled over by a an emperor who claimed to be God's earthly representative.
c. possessed an imperial court where outward grandeur was frowned upon and court ceremony kept to a minimum.
d. touched more on the lives of its subjects than the government of any other region of the world, regulating almost every aspect of a subject's public and private life.
C (Even though the Vikings raided with destructive consequences especially along the coasts and up the navigable rivers of Western Europe, they had a much less destructive impact on the Byzantine Empire with which they usually traded.)
After 500 CE the Byzantine Empire was substantially weakened by invasions by all EXCEPT which of the following?
C (Rus leaders emulated their Byzantine counterparts in their efforts to claim authority over the Orthodox Church in their kingdoms.)
Which of the following was a feature of Byzantine society adopted by the Rus?
a. Roman Catholic faith
b. The Greek language
c. Political ideas concerning imperial control of the church
d. All of the above
B (Much that characterized Roman civilization weakened, declined, or disappeared during the several centuries before and after 476 CE, including long-distance trade.)
In Western Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire in 476 CE,
a. only Rome was able to maintain its population at nearly a million.
b. outside Italy, long-distance trade largely vanished.
c. more land came under cultivation than at the height of the Roman Empire.
d. Odoacer rapidly restored large-scale centralized rule.
D (Even though the Roman Empire was conquered by Germanic tribes with their own distinctive cultures, some features of Roman civilization survived because Germanic peoples had already been Romanized, the prestige of Rome survived after its fall, and some Germanic lords hoped to revive the Roman Empire under their own rule.)
Even after the collapse of the Roman Empire, much that was classical or Roman persisted in Western Europe because
a. the Germanic peoples who conquered the region had already been substantially Romanized before their conquests.
b. despite the Germans bringing their own culture with them, the prestige of things Roman remained high.
c. some ambitious Germanic leaders hoped to reconstruct the Roman Empire under their own rule.
d. all of the above.
D (Serfs were not the personal property of their masters, could not be arbitrarily thrown off their land, and were allowed to live in families. But they were bound to their masters' estates as peasant laborers and owed various payments and services to the lord of the manor.)
a. was the term commonly used for Christian slaves in Western Europe.
b. could be arbitrarily thrown off their land by their masters.
c. were the personal property of their masters and because of this were not allowed to live in family units.
d. none of the above.
B (The Church was able to accommodate a considerable range of earlier cultural practices. For instance, the Church transformed amulets and charms to ward off evil into medals with the image of Jesus or the Virgin Mary on them, and built churches at the site of traditional sacred wells and springs.)
With regard to the conversion of Western Europe to Christianity,
a. Pope Gregory succeeded in converting numerous peoples only after he ordered missionaries to destroy pagan temples upon their arrival in communities.
b. the Church was willing to accommodate a considerable range of earlier cultural practices, by absorbing them into an emerging Christian tradition.
c. the Church pursued a bottom-up strategy, converting the people before they sought to convert their rulers.
d. the Church and their allies among Christian rulers never used coercion to convert communities because such conversions were not considered valid.
A (Only the Christian church organized its hierarchy on that of the Roman Empire.)
Which of the following was NOT a similarity between the establishment of Buddhism in China and Christianity in Western Europe?
a. Both the Buddhist and Christian establishments built hierarchies modeled on their respective empires.
b. Reformers often accused both Buddhist and Christian establishments of forgetting their central spiritual missions.
c. Both Buddhism and Christianity appealed to recently settled nomadic rulers who sought legitimacy for their rule.
d. Both Buddhist and Christian monasteries offered relative freedom from male control for substantial numbers of women.
D (The population of Europe grew from perhaps 35 million in 1000 to about 80 million in 1340. This growth in population helped to stimulate long-distance trade, much of which had dried up in the aftermath of the Roman collapse.)
A feature of the High Middle Ages in Western Europe was
a. population growth.
b. reemergence of political unity as popes started to take the additional title "Holy Roman Emperor."
c. considerable growth in long-distance trade.
d. both a and c.
B (The growth of cities initially offered women substantial new economic opportunities, with women completely dominating some crafts and trades. However, from the fifteenth century such opportunities were declining.)
With regard to women, the growth of cities in Western Europe after 1000
a. led at first to women losing the right to practice traditional professions, although from the 1300s they regained their rights.
b. at first allowed women to participate in many professions, although by the fifteenth century opportunities were declining.
c. led to technological innovations that gave women greater opportunities than in the past.
d. led essentially to conditions of gender equality.
B (Although the crusades to the Holy Land had little long-term political impact on the Islamic world, those directed toward Islamic regions of the Iberian peninsula did lead to the permanent conquest.)
Which of the following was a long-term impact of the crusades?
a. The crusades weakened significantly the influence of Turkic-speaking peoples in the Islamic world.
b. The crusades led to Western Christendom conquering the Muslim regions of the Iberian Peninsula.
c. Animosity from the crusades ended the flow of Muslim learning into Europe.
d. The large-scale conversion of Middle Eastern peoples to Christianity occurred.
C (Although the crusades to the Holy Land had little long-term political impact on the Islamic world, those directed toward Islamic regions of the Iberian peninsula did lead to the permanent conquest.)
In the long term, the crusading movement by Western Europeans
a. disrupted channels of trade because animosity between Christians and Muslims effectively ended trade between these two cultures for centuries to come.
b. brought the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Christian churches closer together as they united in their struggle against the Islamic world.
c. was used by Europeans to rationalize later empire building.
d. all of the above
B (Although China developed gunpowder, Western Europeans were probably the first to use it in cannon. By 1500 they had the most advanced arsenals of cannon in the world, giving them a military advantage over other civilizations.)
A good example of Europeans building on rather than just borrowing technologies from other civilizations is
a. the compass.
b. gunpowder cannon.
d. none of the above.
B (Western Europe emerged as an especially dynamic, expansive, and innovative "third wave" civilization, combining elements of its classical past with the culture of Germanic and Celtic peoples.)
When scholars refer to Western Europe as a "hybrid civilization," they are referring to the combination, after the collapse of the Roman Empire, of elements of
a. Byzantine and Slavic cultures to produce a new civilization.
b. classical Roman, Germanic, and Celtic cultures to produce a new civilization.
c. Slavic and Germanic cultures to produce a new civilization.
d. Byzantine and Celtic cultures to produce a new civilization.
A (Unlike the Orthodox Church in Byzantium with its practice of caesaropapism, the Roman Catholic Church in the West maintained a degree of independence that served to check the power of kings and lords.)
The political culture of post-Roman Western Europe possessed which of the following?
a. A church more independent from the state than was the case in the Byzantine Empire
b. A more powerful and centralized political structure than China
c. A complete lack of politically independent cities
d. Political authority exercised exclusively by the Pope
A (Europe's fragmented political culture allowed merchants in many cities to win the right to make and enforce their own laws and appoint their own officials. Some of them became almost completely independent city-states. Others were granted charters by kings that allowed them to have their own courts, laws, and governments, while paying taxes to the king instead of feudal dues.)
In Western Europe, the multicentered political system made up of competing states and a three-way struggle for power within states between kings, warrior aristocrats, and Church leaders resulted in
a. the achievement of an unusual independence for urban-based merchants.
b. the Roman Catholic Church losing its political authority as Western rulers developed their own version of caesaropapism.
c. a slowing in technological development, because of the devastation of war.
d. all of the above.