APWH Chapter 11 Self Test
Terms in this set (20)
D (Although the Arabian Peninsula had many advantages, including both nomads and settled peoples and excellent connections to the world of trade, in this period it was not united into a single state.)
Which of the following was NOT true of the Arabian Peninsula before the birth of Islam?
a. It was occupied by nomadic Bedouins.
b. Some areas had village-based agriculture
c. It was on an important trade route between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
d. It was a strong kingdom that dominated its neighbors.
B (The umma is the central social building block of Islam, allowing it to become a world religion rather than remaining merely the faith of the Arabs. The Quran also teaches the spiritual equality of women and men, absolute monotheism, and tolerance toward nonbelievers.)
Which of the following is an authentic teaching of Muhammad?
a. Women are spiritually inferior to men.
b. The umma or community of believers is more important than tribal, racial, or ethnic identities.
c. Allah is the chief god of an extensive pantheon of gods.
d. It is proper and praiseworthy to convert non-Muslims by force.
A (The Five Pillars of Islam are the confession of faith, prayer, giving to charity, fasting during Ramadan, and the hajj to Mecca. The belief that authorities are specially designated by God is particular to the Shia sect, and one of the points that have divided Shia and Sunni traditions over the centuries.)
All EXCEPT which of the following is among the "Pillars of Islam"?
a. Respect for divinely appointed authority
b. Generous giving to the needy
c. Fasting during the month of Ramadan
d. Regular prayer at specified times
C (The term jihad is used in two ways in the Quran: the "greater jihad" is spiritual struggle within the individual believer and "lesser jihad" is armed struggle. Forcible conversion has never been a Muslim goal and has occurred only rarely.)
The Arabic term jihad can mean all EXCEPT which of the following?
a. Armed struggle against the forces of unbelief
b. Spiritual striving toward living a God-conscious life
c. Forcible conversion of conquered peoples
d. Defense of the umma from the threat of infidel aggression
B (Historically, Islam has rarely been imposed by force. All the other reasons given helped make Islam appealing to the Arabic peoples.)
Which of the following was NOT a reason for the rapid spread of Islam in seventh-century Arabia?
a. The new faith was religiously appealing.
b. Muhammad imposed the new religion by force on the peoples he and his followers conquered.
c. Successful Muslim raiding promised material gain to members.
d. Muhammad crafted a series of marriage alliances with leading tribes.
D (The new Islamic state rapidly conquered Egypt, brought down the Persian Sassanid Empire, and conquered large sections of the Byzantine state, besides reaching as far east as the Indus River.)
Which one of the following civilizations did NOT lose all or part of its territory to the Arab Empire?
D (As the author points out, both the weakness of their first enemies and a strong religious dimension were important in the creation of the Arab Empire.)
Which of the following was a reason for the Arabs' rapid success in establishing their empire in the seventh century CE?
a. New military technology, most notably use of the crossbow
b. The military weakness of the Persian and Byzantine empires
c. Religious enthusiasm
d. Both b and c
C (The rulers of the new Arab Empire were generous to conquered peoples, even allowing them freedom to practice their own religion if they were "people of the book" although they charged non-Muslims a special tax.)
As far as world conquerors go, subject peoples would have approved of the Arab rulers of the seventh and eighth centuries for all EXCEPT which of the following reasons?
a. Rulers restricted Arab armies of occupation to garrison towns, segregated from the native populations.
b. Rulers were happy to accept local elites into the empire.
c. Rulers gave special tax breaks to subjects who were "people of the book."
d. Rulers did not force their new subjects to convert to Islam.
B (Muslims rarely forced people to convert with any form of force, and subject non-Muslims, or dhimmis, received protection under the law.)
Early Islam offered all EXCEPT which of the following incentives to conversion?
a. Converts did not have to pay a special tax imposed on non-Muslims.
b. Only Muslims were safe from having their land and property confiscated by Muslim rulers.
c. A string of Muslim successes led people to believe that Islam was the true religion.
d. Conversion opened the door to official positions in government.
D (The Sunni/Shia divide began as a fight over two rival notions of authority, with Shiites believing that leadership should remain with the family of the prophet Muhammad.)
Why was the Shia branch of Islam formed?
a. Its adherents feared that Muslims in conquered lands were "going native" and abandoning Islamic teachings.
b. The imam Ali had a new revelation that expanded the teachings of Islam.
c. Its adherents believed that Husayn, the son of Ali, was the messiah.
d. A leadership crisis occurred, causing division between the Sunnis and the Shiites who believed that blood relations of Muhammad should rule the Islamic world.
C (Although Islam acknowledges its kinship to Judaism and Christianity, the Judeo-Christian Bible has no special religious authority for Muslims. Sharia is, however, based on human reason as well as the Quran and hadiths, or traditions and sayings of Muhammad.)
Which of the following was NOT a basis for Islamic law (sharia)?
a. The Quran
b. Human reason
c. The Bible
d. The hadiths
A (Sufism is highly individualistic, teaching how individuals can reach personal union with God; Sufis were highly critical of members of the ulama who catered to worldly and corrupt governments.)
Which of the following was NOT true of most Sufis?
a. They actively allied with governments to further their religious teachings.
b. They often renounced the material world.
c. They described union with the divine in metaphors of intoxication or embrace of a lover.
d. They sought a direct, personal contact with God.
C (Islam eased a number of earlier Arabic restrictions on women, including giving women the right to control property and to initiate a divorce. Men were restricted to a maximum of four wives, and then only if they could treat all of them equally, while the practice of veiling spread only gradually.)
Which of the following statements about women in early Islam is TRUE?
a. The Quran teaches that women should be veiled when in public.
b. Divorce could only be initiated by the husband.
c. Women had the right to control their own property.
d. Men could have as many wives as they could afford to keep.
B (Islam first spread among the Arabs, whose conquests ensured that the religion reached much of Afro-Eurasia. Among those conquests was Persia, and the Islamized Persians also helped diffuse the religion, as did the Turkic-speakers of Central Asia, who brought Islam to Anatolia and India.)
Which of the following peoples was NOT a significant transmitter of Islam to other populations?
D (The Muslim conquerors of northern India showed little respect to Hinduism, looting and destroying many temples. They were also highly different culturally, not least because only Islam advocates equality among all believers. The Muslims, however, did appear attractive to members of lower castes, who found Islam less restrictive.)
Which of the following reasons helps to account for the spread of Islam in India?
a. The Muslim conquerors of northern India were respectful to the Hindu faith and its temples and holy images, making them appear more sympathetic to the Hindu population.
b. Hindus and Turkish Muslims are culturally similar, simplifying relations between the two groups.
c. Hinduism and Islam both advocate equality among all believers, making a transition from one to the other faith easy.
d. Low-caste and "untouchable" Hindus found that Islam gave them more rights than Hinduism.
C (Guru Nanak, who founded Sikhism in the early sixteenth century, blended elements of Islam and Hinduism, arguing that followers of both religions were "children of God.")
Which of the following statements is the best definition of Sikhism?
a. Sikhism is a religion that grew out of a union of Islam and Judaism in the Middle East.
b. Sikhism is a philosophy that advocates Muslim tolerance of other "peoples of the book."
c. Sikhism blended elements of Hinduism and Islam to create a new religion.
d. Sikhism is Islamic mysticism in India.
B (It was low-caste Hindus in India, not low-class Christians in Anatolia, who found Islam an attractive religious option, since Hinduism rather than Christianity discriminated specifically against those of low class.)
Which of the following is NOT a reason why Anatolia was much more Islamized than India was?
a. The Christian institutions of Anatolia were left leaderless and in disarray after the Turkish invasion.
b. Lower-class Christians found Islam particularly attractive.
c. Many more Muslim Turks settled in Anatolia than in India.
d. Sufis established social services that took the place of Christian organizations.
A (Islam reached West Africa in the period after 1000 at the hands of Muslim merchants from North Africa, and spread predominantly among the region's urban mercantile centers.)
Of which region is it true that Islam spread especially among merchants, thanks to inclusion in a major Islamic trading network, rather than by conquest and Islamic rule?
a. West Africa
D (West Africa was dotted with trading cities well before the arrival of the first Muslim. Muslims did, however, provide the West African kings with religious legitimacy, literacy to create a more intricate state administration, and access to the wider world of Islamic culture.)
Which of the following was NOT a gift that Islam gave to West Africa in the premodern period?
a. A common language, Arabic, for administration and trade
b. Religious legitimacy for rulers
c. A sense of participation in a wider world
d. The concept of the city
D (The fourteenth-century Muslim traveler Ibn Battuta was astounded to see the liberties given to women in both Anatolia and West Africa.)
Which of the following Islamic lands was most open in its attitude toward women, allowing them to appear in public and mingle freely with men to whom they were not related?
c. West Africa
d. Both b and c