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PCAT Skeletal and Muscular Systems
Terms in this set (56)
Connective tissue that is softer and more flexible than bone.
Cells responsible for synthesizing cartilage.
Specialized type of mineralized connective tissue that has the ability to withstand physical stress.
Dense bone that does not appear to have any cavities when observed with the naked eye.
Bony matrix composed of osteons.
Structural unit of compact bone. Each unit contains a Haversian canal surrounded by concentric circles of bony matrix (calcium phosphate) called lamellae.
Central portion of bone that contains vascular and nerve supply
Is arranged in concentric circles and around Haversian canals.
Less dense, consists of interconnecting lattice of bony spicules; the cavities between spicules are filled with yellow or red bone marrow.
Bone marrow that is inactive and infiltrated by adipose tissue.
Bone marrow that is involved in blood cell formation.
Synthesize and secrete organic constituents of the bone matrix; once they have become surrounded by their matrix, they mature into osteocytes.
Large, multinucleated cells involved in bone reabsorption, wherin bone is broken down and minerals are released into the blood.
Existing cartilage is replaced by bone.
Mesenchymal (embryonic or undifferentiated) connective tissue is transformed into and replaced by bone.
Bone to bone connectors.
Attach skeletal muscle to bones and bend the skeleton at movable joints.
Point of attachment of a muscle to a stationary bone (the proximal end in limb muscles).
The point of attachment of a muscle to the bone that moves (distal end in limb muscles).
Indicates the straightening of a joint.
Indicates the bending of a joint.
Involuntary muscle found in internal organs.
Muscle attached to the skeleton that makes movement possible.
Involuntary muscle tissue found only in the heart.
Multinucleated cells that make up muscles. They are divided into myofibrils and then sarcomers.
Microscopic protein filaments that make up muscle cells.
Contractile units within myofibrils; the smallest contractile unit of a muscle.
Cytoplasm of a muscle cell.
Cell membrane of a muscle cell. It is capable of propagating an action potential.
Modified endoplasmic reticulums in muscle cells that store calcium ions.
Provides channels for ion flow throughout muscle fibers and can also propagate an action potential.
Skeletal muscle with light and dark stripes
THIN filaments that are located within a sarcomere.
THICK filaments within a sarcomere.
Define the boundaries of a single sarcomere; they move together during muscle contraction.
Runs down the center of a sarcomere.
Region in a sarcomere containing thin (actin) filaments only.
The region in a sarcomere containing thick (myosin) filaments only.
Spans the entire length of the thick filaments and any overlapping portions of thin filaments.
The link between the nerve terminal (synaptic bouton) and the sarcolemma of the muscle fiber.
Provides elasticity and stabilizes myosin by attaching it to the Z line.
Released by the sarcoplasmic reticulum when an action potential is generated. They bind to and "activate" troponin C on actin filaments..
Part of the actin filament that myosin proteins bind.
Muscle rigidity in a corpse from lack of ATP.
Tension stays almost constant while muscle shortens to move a load
Change in the length of the muscle with a corresponding change in tension on that muscle.
(Includes concentric and eccentric types of contraction).
Muscle fibers shorten and the tension on the muscle increases.
Muscle fiber lengthens and the tension on the muscle increases.
Both ends of the muscle are fixed and no change in length occurs during the contraction but tension increases.
A brief contraction of a muscle fiber followed by relaxation.
Absolute Refractory Period
a brief interval during which another action potential can't occur; happens right after you twitch.
Successive stimuli on one nerve.
State of muscle producing sustained maximal tension resulting from repetitive stimulation
Muscle fibers are in a state of partial contraction.
Lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves to the liver and is converted to glucose.
A muscle biochemical that stores energy.
An oxygen-storing, pigmented protein in muscle cells.
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