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Experiment 1: Temperature probe set up:
Vertical Axes (0-50)
Horizontal Axes (0-1000 seconds)
Calorimeter set up
Temperature Probe, stir bar, acid all into styrofoam cup, and that cup into a beaker.
Experi 1: Data Collection
Begin stirring and then wait 15 seconds, This is T1.
Then add MgO/Mg and once highest point is reached, and begins to drop, this is T2.
Experiment 2: Astd and Cstd meaning.
Astd = absorption standard
Cstd = concentration standard
Formula for FeSCN
Cunknown = (Aunknown/Astd)(Cstd)=
x = [FeSCN]
(Through ice chart)
Experi 2: std solution
9 mL of more concentrated solution, no water, and 1 mL of KSCN
Experi 2: For each solution make sure to mix with a stirring rod because
You want the solutions to reach equilibrium.
Calibration of spectrometer
wait for three minutes, insert blank cuvette (filled with 0.0020 M FeNO3), click finish calibration, then "OK"
Storing runs and etc. in experiment 2
Put cuvette in spectrometer, and press the stop button when data collection is complete.
After, click green play button, and store latest run.
How to see all spectra
Click on run 4, and then change it to "All runs."
Calculating initial concentrations of reactants: Experiment 2
(5 mL Fe(NO3)3)/(10 mL total solution) = 0.5
(0.5)(0.002 M Fe(NO3)3) = 0.001 M
[FeNCS2+]eq = (Astd/Aeq)([FeNCS2+]std)
Aeq = ε[FeNCS2+]eql
Aeq/([FeNCS2+]eql) = ε
Astd = ε[FeNCS2+]stdl
Astd/([FeNCS2+]stdl) = ε
Aeq/([FeNCS2+]eql) = Astd/([FeNCS2+]stdl)
Aeq/([FeNCS2+]eq) = Astd/([FeNCS2+]std)
[FeNCS2+]eq = (Astd/Aeq)([FeNCS2+]std)
With (FeNCS2+)std in M
= [Fe3+]i - [FeNCS2+]eq
= [SCN]i - [FeNCS2+]eq
Q test =
(weird value - adjacent value)/(range)
- R T ln K = ΔH° - TΔS°
ln K =
(−ΔH°)(1) + (ΔS°)
( R )(T) ( R )
slope of ln K versus (1/T)
how to find borate ion concentration
M1 = M2
ΔV = amount titrated
M1 = Molarity of Acid
M2 = unknown borate ion concentration
V = mL of solution in the Erlenmeyer flask (should be 5 mL b/c this was measured in the graduated cylinder.)
Solve for M2. Then, multiply by the molar ratio (dimensional analysis/stoichiometry) to figure out borate ion concentration.
find slope, and divide by R (8.314)
y intercept of the graph
y = mx +b
So B = ΔS°/R
Mulitply B by R, and then convert to J
(R is in units of kJ)
ΔS and ΔH are positive and spontaneity?
that the reaction is only spontaneous at high temperatures.
Get moles of chemical compound through molar ratio of chemical equation, and then use the molar mass and get theoretical yield (grams)
How to calibrate pH probe.
Calibrate the pH probe: Tap on the "CH1: pH..." red box, select "Calibrate" in the drop down menu. Click on "Calibrate Now". Rinse the pH meter with copious amounts of deionized water. Carefully blot dry with a Kimwipe. Obtain ~10 mL of pH 4, pH 7, and pH 10 buffers in 50 mL beakers. Dip the pH meter in the pH 4 buffer. When the voltage reading stabilizes, enter the pH value of the buffer in the field beneath "Enter Value". Click KEEP . Rinse the pH probe and blot dry between putting it in different solutions. Repeat the process with the pH 10 buffer. Click OK
LabQuest pH probe set up
On the LabQuest, select "Sensors" > "Data Collection" > "Events with Entry". In the Name field type in "Acid added" or "Base added" and Units "mL". Press OK. When you are ready to collect the pH, press Go . Once the pH has stabilized, press KEEP . Type "0" for the entry. Press OK.
Conductivity set up
Set the selection switch on the amplifier box of the probe to 0-20,000 μS/cm range. Connect the conductivity probe to Ch1 of the LabQuest2. If there are issues with LabQuest2 picking up the conductivity probe, select the "sensors" menu, click sensor setup, & pick "Conductivity 20000 MICS"
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