Terms in this set (68)
What is the difference between heliocentric and geocentric models?
Heliocentric: sun is center of the universe Geocentric: earth is the center of the universe
What are factors that influence earthquake destruction?
Construction of the building, proximity to the earthquake, magnitude of the earthquake
How does the sun consume energy?
Nuclear Fusion: "consumes" 2 hydrogen to create 1 helium and vast quantities of energy
What are warning signs of a tsunami?
Receding of the shore line into the ocean
What is the difference between the focus and the epicenter
Focus: where the earthquake occurs in the Earth Epicenter: the spot on the surface directly above the focus
How would frost wedging occur?
Water can enter cracks or breaks in rock. If the temperature drops and that water freezes, the water expands and cracks or breaks the rock apart
What is soil composed of?
Regolith (soil mineral matter), humus (organic matter), air, water
When do equinoxes occur?
Vernal: March 21st Autumnal: September 22nd Exquinoxes have equal amounts of daylight and night
What is the difference between rotation, revolution, and precession?
Rotation: the spinning on an axis Revolution: the movement around an object Precession: wobbling on an axis
When is Earth closest to the sun? When is Earth farthest from the sun?
Perihelion: closet (January 3rd) Aphelion: farthest (July 4th)
What positions of the Earth, moon, and sun would create high tide? Low tide?
Spring tide = when the sun and moon are lined up together and pull on the earth together with greater force Neap tide = when sun and moon are at right angles to the earth and do not pull together but cancel each other out
How does latitude affect solar intensity?
Increase in latitude = increase in solar intensity
What does the Earth's magnetic field do?
Deflects solar radiation and solar winds
Describe the mid ocean ridge.
What processes form igneous rock? Sedimentary rock? Metamorphic rock?
Igneous: formed from cooling of magma (cooling of internal heat) Sedimentary: formed from compaction of sediments Metamorphic: formed from heat and pressure
What type of environments would make chemical weathering occur faster? Slower?
Fast: wet/hot Slow: dry/cool
What triggers mass movements?
Removal of vegetation, over steep slopes, earthquakes, and precipitation
Why does the Earth have seasons?
Due to Earth's tilt, when the earth is tilted toward the sun, you get summer, when the earth is tilted away from the sun, winter
How does energy transfer in radiation? Convection? Conduction?
Conduction: transfer through touch Convection: transfer through air/water Radiation: transfer through waves in space
How does sunlight travel through space?
Radiation in the form of infrared waves
What is the difference in heating between land and water?
Land heats to a higher temperature and faster than water
What items are used in photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide, water and sunlight
How do earthquakes release energy?
Elastic energy, elastic rebound theory states that pressure builds up until the rocks snap (like an elastic band) and release energy
What is the difference between transform plate boundaries, Convergent boundaries, Divergent boundaries?
Transform: slide past one another Convergent: plates are pushed together Divergent: plates are pulled apart
What is the difference between chemical weathering and mechanical weathering?
Chemical: changes the composition of the rock Mechanical: physical breakdown into smaller pieces
Describe the three types of volcanoes. What type is the most dangerous?
Cinder Cone: Lots of gas, pyroclastic material shot out Stratovolcano: basaltic lavas and pyroclastic materials ejected Shield: low and broad, basaltic lava flows, island builder Most Explosive: Stratovolcano
What is the definition of air pollution?
Introduction of chemicals, particulates, biological materials or other materials to Earth's atmosphere
What is the difference between strip mining, mountain top removal, and tunnel mining?
Strip Mining: removing the top layer to expose coal Mountain Top Removal: removing large amounts of surface to expose coal Tunnel: digging into the mountain to retrieve coal (coal mines)
What happens with the water table intersects the surface?
Springs, wetlands, marshes are formed
Describe the water cycle
Water evaporates from the water on Earth, condenses in the sky to form a cloud, when enough condensate collects, it will precipitate to the ground,. It will then either infiltrate into the soil, or run off to be put back in the water cycle
What is an artesian well?
Aquifer surrounded by 2 aquitards. Requires a tilted aquifer
What kinds of gases make up the atmosphere and what are their relative percents?
Nitrogen and Oxygen (99%) Carbon Dioxide (0.03%) Argon (0.93 %)
What does ozone do in the atmosphere?
Deflection of UV rays/solar radiation
Describe the different types of air masses: mT, cT, mP, and cP.
34. Describe the different types of air masses: mT, cT, mP, and cP. (m) maritime = over water (T) tropical = near equator (c) continental = over land (p) polar = near poles
How is weather usually in a high pressure system? A low pressure system?
High pressure = clear skies, sunny Low pressure = stormy skies, windy
What types of things contribute to acid rain?
Sulfur dioxides and nitrogen dioxides formed in the burning of fossil fuels
How would the Koppen classification system describe Highland climates, dry climates, polar climates, humid tropical climates, tundra, desert, and humid mi- latitude climates?
Dry Climates: evaporation rate is larger than the precipitation rate Polar: Average cold climate Humid Tropical: Warm and Moist Humid Mid Latitude: severe or mild winters
Highlands: cooler temperatures than lower altitudes
What are contributing factors the scientists believe lead to global warming?
Increase in greenhouse gases
What determine biome classification?
Biotic factors (animals and plants) abiotic factors (weather and geography)
Why is biodiversity important?
Variety of plants and animals to consume, medical purposes, agricultural diversity for pest control
What are advantages of aquaculture?
Growing animals in water has more area than on flat land (more can be produced), aquatic species are cold blooded so don't use food they've ate to keep body temperature up, have less bones and produce more meat per animal
What prevents unlimited population growth?
Resource limitations, decrease in resources, competition, predation and disease
How does living near a body of water affect climate?
Living near a body of water, you will experience a slow rise to temperature, from great lows to high highs. You will reach higher temperatures than areas not around bodies of water
How do forests help to control carbon dioxide levels?
Forests contain plants that take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen through photosynthesis. Without these forests, you would have a large amount of carbon (carbon sink) in the atmosphere
What did the Montreal protocol do?
Treaty that created a plan to remove/eliminate chloroflourocarbons (CFCs)
What is the difference between weather and climate?
Weather: conditions of the atmosphere day to day Climate: weather over a long period of time
What defines a green house gas?
Any gas that absorbs/traps heat
What are the effects of burning fossil fuels?
Increase of greenhouse gases, acid precipitation, smog
What are the effects of melting sea ice versus land ice?
rise in sea level
What are the effects of ocean acidification?
Photosynthetic plants will suffer, organisms with calcium shells (like coral, crabs, shrimp, etc) will most likely die
What is the difference between biotic and abiotic factors?
Biotic: living (plants, animals, bacteria, fungi) Abiotic: non living (water, air, soil)
How do humans affect biodiversity?
Destruction of habitats through development of houses and buildings, pollution
What are steps we can take to create a sustainable world?
Recycling, alternative energies, being a good consumer (consuming less)
What are the environmental drawbacks of hydroelectric power?
Disruption of valley and river ecosystems
Why are marine fisheries overharvested?
Political and social agendas do not account for biological information. There is too much demand compared to availability
How can you lower your ecological footprint?
Reduce, reuse, recycle
What does relative humidity indicate and how do you calculate it?
Relative humidity: how much water vapor is in the air compared to how much the entire could hold to its maximum (saturation) measured by a hygrometer: one wet bulb, one dry bulb, take the difference in temperature and use chart to find relative humidity
What gases form acid rain?
Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide
What causes the depletion of the ozone layer?
What are examples of the major green house gases?
Carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor
What is the most likely cause of carbon dioxide rise from 1960 to 2000?
Industrial revolution, increase in factories and products that produce CO2
What gas dissolves into water and makes carbonic acid?
What things cause sea level rise?
Melting of sea ice
What is the difference between species richness and species diversity?
Species richness: the amount of one organism Species diversity: the amount of different organisms in an area
What are the human causes of extinction?
Hunting and destroying habitats, pollution and introducing non-native species
What are problems with solar, wind, and nuclear energy?
Solar: only works in day time, expensive Wind: wildlife endangerment, expensive, wind is variable Nuclear: limited supply of radioactive materials, radioactive waste
What is the maximum number of individuals that a place can support called?
What is the difference between exponential growth and logistic growth?
Exponential growth: number of individuals in a population grows rapidly Logistic: level of population levels out