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Unit 6: Ancient Greece
Terms in this set (46)
-c. 2000 BCE to c. 1450 BCE
Bronze-age civilization on Crete by 2800 BCE
-Cities built around palaces
-Civilization destroyed c. 1450 to 1400 BCE
Weakened by volcanic eruption and tsunami?
Conquered by Mycenaeans?
-c. 1600 to c. 1100 BCE
-War with Troy c. 1250 BCE
-Mycenaean civilization weakened by warfare and then conquered by invaders
-"Dark Age" from 1100 BCE to 750 BCE
In classical mythology, the great war fought between the Greeks and the Trojans. The Greeks sailed to Troy in order to recover Helen of Troy, the beautiful wife of a Greek king.
Greek Dark Age
Period between the collapse of Mycenaean Greece (1100 B.C) to about 750 B.C. Events that occurred:
-Declining population and food production
-Migrations across Aegean to islands and Ionia
-Iron replaced bronze
-Adaptation of Phoenician alphabet
-Development of the Polis
Homer is the name given by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey.
a city state in ancient Greece, especially as considered in its ideal form for philosophical purposes.
a citadel or fortified part of an ancient Greek city, typically built on a hill.
a public open space used for assemblies and markets.
Hoplites were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states who were primarily armed with spears and shields.
a body of troops standing or moving in close formation.
Hellenic/ Classical Greece
The time between the death of Alexander the Great and the rise of Roman domination. During this time, Greek culture was dominant throughout the Mediterranean.
An ancient Greek city-state and rival of Athens. Sparta was known for its militaristic government and for its educational system designed to train children to be devoted citizens and brave soldiers. Sparta defeated Athens in the Peloponnesian War.
Lycurgus was the legendary lawgiver of Sparta who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society
Members of a class of serfs in ancient Sparta, intermediate in status between slaves and citizens.
a small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution.
Capital of Greece, rival of Sparta
Cleisthenes was a noble Athenian who is credited with reforming the constitution of ancient Athens and setting it on a democratic footing
a political division of Attica in ancient Greece, with their own police force, housing, etc...
Council of 500
Represented the full-time government of Athens. It consisted of 500 citizens, 50 from each of the ten tribes, who served for one year. The Council could issue decrees on its own, but not pass them. Also dealt with FOREIGN AFFAIRS, MANAGED TREASURY.
the principal assembly of democracy in ancient Athens during its Golden Age.
a ruler who seized power unconstitutionally or inherited such power, but usually kind.
A system in which any citizen could speak to the assembly and vote on decisions by simply holding up their hands. The majority won the day.
The Greco-Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.
Cause and Effect
Greece is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea, so they traded with other countries on the sea
Mountains and hills divided the people, so small, independent communities developed.
Greece had limited rich soil, so they farmed on hillsides, using terraced farming.
Xerxes I, called Xerxes the Great, was the fourth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia. He ruled from 486 BC until his assassination in 465 BC. He beat Leonides in the Battle of Thermopylae.
Leonidas I was a warrior king of the Greek city-state of Sparta. He was the husband of Gorgo, the daughter of Cleomenes I of Sparta. Led the Spartans against the Persians in the Battle of Thermopylae.
an ancient Greek or Roman war boat with lots of oars and a battering ram.
Battle of Thermopylae
The Battle of Thermopylae was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece
Battle of Plataea
The Battle of Plataea was the final land battle during the second Persian invasion of Greece. It took place in 479 BC near the city of Plataea and was fought between an alliance of the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I.
Age of Pericles
The golden age of Athenian culture flourished under the leadership of Pericles (495-429 B.C.), a brilliant general, orator, patron of the arts and politician—"the first citizen" of democratic Athens,
The Parthenon is a former temple, on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena
The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persians.
The Peloponnesian War was an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.
Plague of Athens
A devastating plague which affected Athens during the Peloponnesian war.
Battle of Aegospotami
The naval Battle of Aegospotami took place in 405 BC and was the last major battle of the Peloponnesian War.
Effects of the Peloponnesian War
-Athens had weaker leaders after Pericles died
-Was overextended in war with Sparta and war in Sicily
-Sparta received funding from Persians to build a superior navy
-Sparta won, but at great cost to both sides
-Pericles = leader of Athens, died during war
-Plague in Athens killed 1/3 of population
Macedonia is the largest and second most populous Greek region, dominated by mountains on the inside, and ports on the outside.
Alexander the Great
Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon, and conquered countless countries for Greece.
Kingdoms which held Greek culture and spread the culture in non-Greek zones, such as Africa.
A council of 400-500 citizens appointed to run daily affairs of the city of Athens.
Excessive pride and excessive defiance of the gods. Will eventually result in the downfall of the possessor.
Golden Age of Athens
-Continued democratic reforms to transfer more power to the Assembly, Council of 500, and People's Courts
-Oversaw rebuilding of Athens (after it was destroyed in Persian wars) with money from the Delian League
The time from 480 BC-404 BC. which was a period of Athenian political stability, economic growth and cultural flourishing.
Ancient Greek scholar who lived on through his pupils writings, mainly Plato's. Put on trial for possessing the youth. Called the wisest man during his life.
Ancient Greek scholar and philosopher and subject of Socrates. Wrote the Allegory of the Cave, about reality, and expressed his issues with Democracy and his interest in an Oligarchy
Ancient Greek scholar and philosopher taught by Plato. He went on to focus on ideas of logic and even tutor Alexander the Great
A Spartan assembly in which every Spartan male full citizen thirteen or older was entitled to attend the meetings. They would vote on many issues, similar to the Athenian assembly.
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