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Exam 1 Spike
Terms in this set (100)
River networks lay at the heart of pre-contact trade networks.
Supporters of the Kenniwick Man controversy ascribe to the theory that
Europeans were present in the New World thousands of years before Columbus
The ____ site was the center of a complex trade network, clearly visible in the archaeological record through hundreds of miles of roads.
Complex, long-range trade networks did not emerge in the Americas until shortly before contact
One commonality between many creation stories is
in situ creation: that is, the idea that the group has always been in this land and place
Rising estimates of Native American population size at contact has affected modern views of
the complexity of Indian political, economic, and social systems
European claims of the Americas as an untouched "virgin wilderness."
the rationalization of the dispossession of Indian lands
of the above
The ____ experienced a period of great migration, during which they abandoned their sophisticated towns.
The most distinctive and important artifact of native peoples of early (11,500-8,000 years ago) is
the Clovis projectile point
The "three sisters" are corn, beans, and squash.
Hunting on the Plains remained much unchanged over time from the earliest eras through the era of contact.
European contact with the New World in effect created a "new world" for native peoples as well.
After contact, European livestock threatened Indian subsistence patterns and food sources.
Powhatan's actions towards the English can be characterized by
Powhatan's attempts to incorporate the English into his chieftanship
The Pueblo Rebellion
resulted in the complete retreat of the Spanish from New Mexico
was so effective that it has been called "the first American Revolution"
_____served as a go-between, or cultural broker, between the Aztecs and the Spanish during the conquest.
The spread of Native American stereotype is linked to which of the following?
The travels of Cabeza de Vaca
resulted in one of the first recorded experiences of Europeans living among native peoples for an extended period of time
resulted in a surprisingly sympathetic portrayal of Native Americans by cabeza de Vaca
For Spaniards, the conquest of the New World was religious as well as military.
The concept of a "middle ground" refers to
a means of maintaining coexistence through constant compromise, communication, and negotiation
After the introduction of European firearms, Indians quickly abandoned the bow and arrow and became dependent on the superior European weaponry.
The establishment of missions allowed the Spanish to harness Indian labor.
Mary Jemison is BEST known
for her captivity narrative
Although the Spanish missions attempted to convert native peoples to Catholicism, often the outcome was a syncretic hybrid religion.
In part because of the fur trade, Indians became tied to developing European capitalism as producers and consumers, resulting in increasing (but not complete) reliance on European porducts and technology.
Which of the following was NOT a major commodity of the early colonial fur trade?
During the fur trade, the British enjoyed the advantage of ___, while the French countered by ___.
(British)cheaper prices and higher quality of trade goods; (French) skilled diplomacy and understanding native trade protocol
Children of Indian mothers and European fathers were most accepted in which group?
Which of the following is NOT true of warfare amongst and between Indians and Europeans during the colonial period and the revolutionary era?
European contact had no effect on traditional Indian alliances and enemies
Which of the following groups did NOT act as "go-betweens" (middlemen) in the fur trade?
Bureau of Indian Affairs officials
In the diplomacy of 18th century northeastern North America, ____ conveyed messages, initiated proceedings, recorded agreements, and guaranteed promises.
was in essence an Indian independence war
really should be considered a continuation of the Seven Years' War rather than a part of its aftermath
was tied to and drew inspiration from the visions of Depaware prophet Neolin
The Northwest Ordinance
proclaimed that the U.S. would not invade or take Indian lands except in "just and lawful wars"
laid out a blueprint for national expansion into Indian lands
After the Revolution, the new United States completely disregarded the British example of Indian relations, and set up an Indian department to oversee regulation of the frontier.
The smallpox pandemic of 1779-1784
affected much of Americas, including the U.S., Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador.
devastated much of the Native population of the Plains and West in the U.S.
spread following trade routes in many places
While the mission population of California grew overall in the last half of the 1700s because of congregating Indians into one place, there was an overall demographic collapse in the Native population of California because of a smallpox epidemic.
The Declaration of Independence
portrayed and defined Indians as enemies of freedom
The confederacy led by Little Turtle
rejected treaties signed by individual tribes
In 1797, George Washington issued an order for Sullivan's army to "burn out the Cherokee."
The 1763 Royal Proclamation established that only representatives of the British crown could negotiate land purchases from Native peoples
Early U.S. Indian policy
followed the British example in its bureaucracy
was influenced by foreign relations beyond U.S./Indian affairs
grew commensurately with the U.S. land holdings
In general, the Lewis and Clark expedition succeeded in cultivating friendly relations with the Indians they encountered.
During the period of Indian Removal
the Supreme Court was defied twice in two separate case rulings
the discovery of gold in Cherokee country added pressure to an already explosive situation
The problems of Indian Removal originated with the Jacksonian era.
By 1827, the Cherokee has a written constitution, an independant judiciary, a principal chief, and a two-house legislature.
Although the Longhouse Religion called for Indians to live in peace with the U.S., and the teachings of Tenskwatawa characterized whites as "children of the evil spirit,"
Both religions called for native peoples to give up alcohol
The policy of U.S. Indian agents of "turning hunters to farmers" in the Indian nations of the south (such as the Creek and Cherokee) also produced massive upheaval in the traditional gender roles ascribed to women.
called for a united Indian resistance against the encroaching United States
were based in part on his brother Tenskwatawa's visions and message
played a role in the cause of the Red Stick War
Indian agents such as Benjamin Hawkins
sought to make yeoman farmers of Indians such as the Creeks
were interested in creating a market economy among native peoples
The Treaty of New Echota
splintered the Cherokee nation
signatories were mostly from the most elite Cherokee
resulted in the Cherokee Removal
Groups that managed to evade removal and stay in their traditional lands include
the Eastern Band of Cherokee
Congress ceased making treaties with Indians in 1871
in part because the House of Representatives desired a voice in Indian affairs
because of the conviction that Indians should be treated as wards of the state, not as foreign nations
because of the consistent pattern of failures in past treaties and agreements
The Indians' victory in the Battle of Little Big Horn resulted in the preservation of the Black Hills for the Sioux people
"Winning the West"
was seen by many as a means of healing and bringing together the nation in the aftermath of the Civil War
The Sand Creek Masaacre, the Trail of Tears, and the Battle of Little Big Horn
all are linked to the discovery of gold in their region
Prophetic movements such as the Indian Shaker religion and the Dreamer religion were reactions to the traumas of reservation life.
The Trail of Tears is to the Cherokee as the Long Walk is to the
One of the characteristics of western warfare between the U.S. Army and Indian groups was collaboration between the Army and some Indians- in some cases, individuals; in other cases, entire nations.
Two key beliefs of the Ghost Dance were (choose both!)
The return of the buffalo
the disappearance of white men
Strategies for survival for leaders of nations in the West included
exploiting the system of annunuities to gain wealth and buy tribal lands
accommodation and trying to control the pace of change
In the wake of the Indian Removal back east, native peoples of Oklahoma experienced actions of ethnic clensing.
Many of the students of the bording schools learned the material, but internalized it as an alternate system of knowledge from the Indian system of knowledge.
The Dawes Allotment Act rested on the assumption that
as long as Indians held land in common, they would make no "progress towards civilization."
Much of the state of Oklahoma was "excess" land from the allotment system
Part of the mission of bording schools was to
make "individuals" of the children
The Dawes Allotment Act
"gave" land to individuals, but then held the title for 25 years
favored eventual citizenship for Indians
resulted in the loss of millions of acres of tribal lands
Reformers believed the first step in "Americanizing" Indians was to
eradicate tribal culture
One unintended consequence of the boarding school system was the spread of disease.
Reservations were intended to be a temporary measure, serving as the setting for the process of detribalization.
Parents who chose to send their children to governmental boarding schools received extra rations and annuities.
Post WWII Cold War fears and a commitment to "Americanism" resulted in
Which of the following is NOT true of the Voluntary Relocation Program of Indians under the BIA?
It encouraged resettlement in regions close to one's ppoint of orign in order to continue close ties to reservation communities
The Indian Reorganization Act
Ended the Dawes Allotment Act and prohibited further allotments of Indian lands
established federal training programs for issues such as public health
allowed Indians living on reservations to establish local-self government
In the mid-twentieth century, dam projects flooded thousands of acres of reservation lands across the Untied States.
John Collier is most closely identified with
the Indian New Deal
The Navajo are closely associated with
the code talkers of World War II
The Klamath and Menominee
were both terminated
One of the hallmarks of the Indian New Deal was its adaptabliity for a diverse native population.
The Red Power movement did all EXCEPT
successfully stopped the flooding of reservation lands across the United States, including the Garrison Dam
The "Proclamation to the Great White Father" demanded reparations from the U.S. government for confiscated land and broken treaties.
The Indian New Deal
counted the return of several million acres of Indian lands as one of its successes
The Indian Self-Determination and Educational Assistance Act
gave tribes the right to administer federal assistance programs
The struggle over natural resources on Native lands in the 1970s ultimately yielded mixed results, with some nations reamining impoverished and others gaining wealth from the natural resourcs on their lands.
The Rehnquist Supreme Court of the late twentieth century
weakened the body of laws protecting Indian rights
The goal of AIM in the Wounded Knee standoff was to restore an Indain government and regain soverignty, and to inspire similar action in other Indian nations.
The WARN (Women of All Red Nations) movement was created because
they argued that AIM did not represent women's concerns adequately
to protest domestic voilence and tehe involuntary steralization of Native women by the Indian Health Service
The 1970s saw the creation of international indigenous rights organizations such as
the International Indigenous Treaty Council
The American Indian Movement's militancy produced some strain and division within Indian society.
The Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act requires all privately held atrifacts and human remains to be returned to tribes
The American Indian Movement was founded to
protect Native peoples from police harassment
One of the most heated standoffs between AIM and the federal government occurred at t he 71 day siege of _____.
The Lumbees of North Carolina are an example of
a federally "unrecognized" tribe
There is no one measure to determining "who is an Indian;" tribes and nations each have their own differing guidelines and measures.
In the past, Native populations were significantly undercounted in the census because
census takers recorded race by observation; that is, only people who "looked like" Indians were counted as Native
Which of the following legal codes apply on reservations?
Concerns that once recognized, tribes would immediately open casinos has slowed or halted the process for some groups seeking federal recognition.
Modern census figures show a growing population of Native peoples today, in part because of "blood quantum" rules means that a non-Native spouse of an Indian man or woman counts as Native in the census.
The phrase "triple citizen" expresses that Indians are simultaneously citizens of the U.S., their state, and their tribe.
Historically, outsiders could become members of tribes and nations
Both states and tribes have complained that the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act
violates their soverignty
Criteria used by the Office of Federal Acknowledgement to determine admission to the federal recognition status for tribes include
common Indian ancestry
continuous community and political leadership
historical association with a particular territory
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