Events leading to civil war
Terms in this set (11)
Missouri compromise 1820
This maintained the balance between free and slave states by adding two new states to the Union, including Maine. Congress also agreed that any future state added above the 36°30' would be a free state and below would be a slave state.
Nullification Crisis 1832
Congress called for an increase on the import tax that followed the War of 1812. This angered the poorer South who felt this tax discriminated against southern states. South Carolina refused to pay, and threatened to secede, or leave, the Union. President Jackson threatened to use military force to make South Carolina pay the import tax
Texas annexation 1845
President James K. Polk added this former republic to the Union as our 28th state, knowing very well it would expand slave territory and would risk war with Mexico. Mexico and the United States would eventually go to war.
Mexican cession 1848
This expanded the United States into areas that included California, Nevada, Utah, most of Arizona, and parts of New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming--almost half the size of Mexico.
Compromise of 1850
To solve another challenge to the balance of power between the North and South, Henry Clay proposed that California and Washington, D.C. would ban slavery, while the rest of the territories won from Mexico would not restrict slavery, and that Congress would pass stronger laws to help slaveholders recapture runaway slaves.
California Statehood 1850
As a result of a population boom of over 300,000 people during the Gold Rush, Congress added this area as the 31st state of the Union.
Fugitive Slave Act 1850
This law required that states return escaped slaves upon capture. People being accused of being "runaways" could be held without arrest warrant and a jury trial. Slave catchers roamed the North sometimes capturing free African-Americans. Some northern states attempted to nullify this law.
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
U.S. Senator Stephen A. Douglas proposed a bill that dividing the territory northwest of Missouri into two. He also suggested that popular sovereignty should settle whether or not the territory would allow slavery. This bill conflicted with the Missouri Compromise that banned slavery in territory north of the 36°30' line.
Dred Scott v. Sanford 1856
In a devastating court ruling, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney delivered his opinion that slaves were not U.S. citizens, they were property. He also ruled that Congress could not ban slavery in the territories because to do so would violate property rights protected by the Fifth Amendment. This ruling made the Missouri Compromise "unconstitutional."
John Brown Raids Harper's Ferry 1859
A radical abolitionist who believed in the violent overthrow of the system of slavery, led twenty-one of his followers in an attack on a federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry in Virginia. The abolitionists were captured and hanged, but were viewed as heroes to radical abolitionists in the North. The event hastened the coming of the Civil War.
The election of Abraham Lincoln 1860
This was the final straw that prompted southern states to secede, or leave, the Union, when he became the 16th President of the United States. Southerners believed that he would take away their state rights and would free the slaves. They were correct.