Greenberg - Unit 9 Civil Rights and Social Change
for the test on 4/13. there is no writing on this test.
What did the case Plessy v. Ferguson lead to?
This case led to Jim Crow Laws and legal segregation.
How did WWII set the stage for the Civil RIghts Movement?
African Americans fought bravely for their country, worked in war industry jobs and successfully lobbied FDR to integrate defense jobs.
Who largely led the desegragation campaign?
The NAACP led the campaign.
What case overturned The Plessy decesion?
Brown v. Board of Education in Topeka. After Marshall won this case, segregation was declared unconstitutional.
What was the significance of the Brown II ruling in 1955?
The ruling ordered te speeding up of desegregation in schools.
What were the goals of the Civil RIghts Movement?
The goals were desegregation and the securin gof voting rights.
Who were The Little Rock 9?
They were 9 African American students who desegregated Central High School in Little Rock.
How did Eisenhower attempt to protect The Little Rock 9?
He sent in troops to protect them.
Define. Civil Rights Act of 1957
This Aact allowed the federal government to have jurisdiction over violations of segregation and voting rights.
How long did the Montgomery Bus Boycott last? Was it successful?
The boycott lasted a little over a year. The boycott was very successful - The Supreme Court ruled segregation on buses unconstitutional.
What was the significance of The Montgomery Bus Boycott?
It showed the world that African Americans could unite.
What did King call his non-violent resistance?
Identify. Emmit Till
He was the young boy that was lynched for whistling at a white woman in a store.
Southern Chirstain Leadership Confrence - organization of black ministers led by MLK
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Commitee - organization fo college students.
What was the significance of The Greensboro 4?
The "sit-in" becomes a successful tactic.
What were freedom riders?
They were black and white college students who were testing segregation in the South.
How did the Freedom RIders get down to the south?
They would ride the buses down.
Why did the Freedom Riders want to be attacked?
They were hoping for media coverage.
What was the result of James Meredith enrolling in Ole Miss?
There were riots all over campus and Meredith was eventually shot.
How did the police, led by Bull Connor, deal with protesters in Birmingham when MLK went down for a protest?
They were violent and threw the protestors in jail.
What was the point of the March on Washington?
To show support for the Civil RIghts Bills.
Where did MLK give his I Have A Dream speech?
In Washignton, at the March on Washington.
What happened 2 weeks after MLK gave his speech?
4 young girls were killed when their church in Birmingham was firebombed.
Who got the Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed?
What were the key provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
Segregation of any kind was banned, no discrimination based on race, gender, religion etc.
What was the most segregated city in the US?
What happened during the Selma Campaign?
It was met by violence.
What were the provisions of The Voting Rights Act of 1965?
No literacy tests could be given and voting rights would be enforced by the federal government.
What type of segregation was occuring in the North?
de facto - this meant that segregation was not a law but it just happened. example) the cafeteria.
What type of segregation was occuring in the south?
de jure - this segregation was law
Identify. Harlem and Watts riots.
Destructive riots started by police confrontations
What was Malcom X's message to other blacks?
Black Separatism - should take care of themselves
What is the symbol for balck power?
Who coined the phrase black power?
Why were the Black Panthers originally formed?
To flight police brutality in the ghettos.
What were some of the goals of this group?
Took care of social needs, watch police and protect black rights.
Who assassinated MLK?
James Earl Ray
Where was MLK when he was assassinated and why?
He was in Memphis to help out with a city worker's strike. More specifically he was in The Lorraine Hotel on the second floor.
What were the reactions to MLK's death?
This event led to the worst rioting in US history, 100 cities exploded in flames.
What was the Kerner Commission?
Johnson appointed them to study the cause of urban violence - they said it was white racism.
What did the Civil Rights Act of 1968 say?
It ended discrimination in housing.
Define. Affirmative Action.
Preferential hiring/admission based on minority status
What was Betty Friedans book, The Feminine Mystique about?
It was about how women were not happy with their status in society.
The belief that women should have economic, political and social equality with men
What was unfair about womens jobs?
They were not promoted as frequently and had a lesser pay.
Ironically, where were women discriminated in the 60's?
The Civil Rights Movement and The Anti-War Movement
National Organization for Women
What were some of the goals of NOW?
Their goals were equal pay for equal work, more education opportunities, and more childcare facilities.
What did Gloria Steinnem do?
Started a liberal group that encourage women to run for political office.
What did New York Radical Women do?
They dressed a sheep up as Miss America - demonstrated at the Miss America Pageant
What was the significance of Roe v. Wade?
This case made abortion legal
What did the Equal Rights Amendment say?
It stated that men and women had no legal distinction
Who was against the Equal Rights Amendment?
Did the Equal Rights Amendment pass?
A movement made up of mostly white middle-class college youths who had grown disillusioned with the war in Vietnam and injustices in America in the 1960's
What were members of counterculture known as?
What were the many youths that had a part in counterculture trying to create?
Where was the so called Hippie Capital?
Haightashbury - In San Francisco
After a few years, the countercultures peace and harmony gave way to violence and disillusionment. How?
STD's, unwanted pregnancy, drug overdoes leading to death
Identify Andy Warhol
He took everyday pictures and transformed them
What band helped promote rock music into the mainstream?
Where did Woodstock take place?
A dairy farm in upstate New York
What were some of the conservative arguments about counterculture?
It was harming America and leading to moral decay.