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Terms in this set (17)
א':א'- "וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הַבָּאִים מִצְרָיְמָה"
Why does ספר שמות begin with the list of the names of Yaakov's Family? We find a much better more detailed list in ספר בראשית; so why does it need to be repeated here?
1. רש''י- Hashem is counting them because its his way of showing them how much he loves them
2. רשב''ם- We need a reminder of how small our nation was (70) because now its growing and is much bigger- (quantitative)
3. ספורנו- This shows a qualitative difference between the original nation (70) and the current jews since they had a much better quality of life- (qualitative)
4. רמב''ן- The book has to live up to its title ספר הגלות והגאולה- So we have to include how we went to galut
א:ח- "וַיָּקָם מֶלֶךְ חָדָשׁ עַל מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָדַע אֶת יוֹסֵף"
Was this actually a new king, or was it the same old pharaoh with some new ideas?
1. רש''י- quotes a מחלוקת:
one says- its a new king
other says- he has new decrees, old king
rashi's opinion-its not a new king, he pretended not to know Yosef
2. אבן עזרא- it means what it says, its a new king, but this king wasnt next in line to bed king. Thats why it says "וַיָּקָם"—> he rose up out of no where
( א''ע is being very consistent with his wording when he said that everyone from the previous generation died, even pharaoh)
3. דעת זקנים- same king- new leadership! He was taken out of his leadership/ throne for showing loyalty to the jews, he then regained the power when he agreed to afflict the jews
- it says "וַיָּקָם" because his מלכות wasn't new, but his rise to power was!
4. כלי יקר- the word "וַיָּקָם" is always used negatively, sop it could be either a new king with bad intentions or an old king with newly bad intentions
-"אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָדַע אֶת יוֹסֵף"—> pharaoh doesn't know who he's messing with, he didn't know Yosef
א:ט- "הִנֵּה עַם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל רַב וְעָצוּם מִמֶּנּוּ"
What exactly is pharaoh worried about?
1. רש''י- ( also asks question: why use "וַיִּשְׁרְצוּ"-"the jews were like bugs", why insects to describe population growth?)
- The jew were have 6 babies at once and rapidly growing—> just like insects (rashi gets 6 from the 6 synonyms in the passuk to describe the population growth- פָּרוּ וַיִּשְׁרְצוּ וַיִּרְבּוּ וַיַּעַצְמוּ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד
--> Pharaoh is worried because they are rapidly growing
2. רשב''ם- (asks why there are 4 synonyms to say the same thing)
- פָּרוּ= became pregnant
- וַיִּשְׁרְצוּ= gave birth- no miscarriages
- וַיִּרְבּוּ= children didn't die as infants
- וַיַּעַצְמוּ= children grew into strong adults
--> Pharaoh is worried about the size and strength of bnei yisrael
3. כלי יקר- (what does the phrase "וַיַּעַצְמוּ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד" mean?)
- בְּכָל לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל מְאדֶךָ- we also see this word come up in שְׁמַע- in shemah, "מְאדֶךָ" means to love hashem with all your money
- ->pharaoh is worried about their wealth
PHARAOH IS BEING THREATENED BY THE JEWS SUCCESS
What is Pharaohs specie plan for dealing with the jews?
PLAN A- "Work Plan"
what is his plan?
the harder they work, the less time and energy they'll have for having babies
everything pharaoh imposed on the jews was "בפרך"- back breaking
What does Rav Hirsch say about this word?
"בפרך" is not used any other time except for the פרוכת (division)—> so pharaohs goal here is to separate/ divide the jews from the rest of the nation and be looked at as less than human
Why doesn't plan A work?
רש''י- ( WHAT is the relationship between pharaohs torture and the jews success?- bothered by the word "כאשר")
- "וְכַאֲשֶׁר יְעַנּוּ אֹתוֹ"- the more the jews suffer, the more hashem foils pharaohs plan and makes them successful
- "כֵּן יִרְבֶּה וְכֵן יִפְרֹץ"- when pharaoh said "lest they multiply multiply" hashem responded "they will multiply"
PLAN B- "The Midwife Plan"
What is his plan?
the midwives should kill the jewish babies in a devious way- make it seem like they were stillborn (born dead)
Why doesn't Plan B work?
פשט- The midwife don't do what pharaoh instructed them to do and let the babies live since they feared hashem
Who are the midwives? Jewish or Egyptian?
1. רשב''ם- Random Jewish women
2. Rashi- שפרה=יוכבד —> yocheved was nicknamed shifrah because it was her job to beautify the baby (לשפר)
מרים=פועה —> Miriam was nickname push because her job was to pacify the baby (לפעות)
--This was very cruel of pharaohs to make jewish women do this
3. אברבנל- the were Egyptians- pharaoh wouldn't have trusted jewish women to kill jewish babies
- a שפרה= a baby cleaner
- a פועה= a baby/ mommy soother
- these were job descriptions, not names! Midwives worked in pairs of two
proof: כלי יקר- it says in the passuk "וַתִּירֶאןָ הַמְיַלְּדֹת אֶת הָאֱלֹהִים"- the midwives feared God"
this is obvious if they were jewish. If they were jewish the torah wouldn't have to go out of its way to write that
Who cares who the midwives are?
"בזכות נשים צדקיות נגאלו אבותינו ממצרים"- we were saved from egypt because the women were righteous
-this may not only refer to jewish women
"כִּי חָיוֹת הֵנָּה" - How do the midwives explain themselves to pharaoh?
1.רש''י- the jewish women don't need midwives because:
a) they are expert midwives- חיתה= midwife
b) they are like animals who don't need help giving birth-חיות=animals
2. ספורנו- (like rashi)- the jewish women are expert midwives so we cant trick them (would agree with חיתה)
3. rashbam- חיות= healthy/alive, so the women give birth quickly
4. אור החיים- they are so clever, they tell us the wrong due date, by the time the midwives get there they've already given birth. חיות= clever
"כ'-כא': "וַיֵּיטֶב אֱלֹהִים לַמְיַלְּדֹת... וַיַּעַשׂ לָהֶם בָּתִּים
What is the reward for the midwives?
1. שד''ל- The reward is houses and it was rewarded to them by the jews since they were skilled builders (built pyramids for pharaoh in slavery)
—> 2 rewards: goads reward+ peoples reward
2. רש''י- the reward is the legacy of the כהנים, לווים, מלכים from yocheved and Miriam
—> 1 reward
3. שד''ל- hashem gave them households full of children (since the midwives were child's women)
4. חזקוני- two distinct rewards:
a) they didn't get a punishment from pharaohs for disobedience- "וַיֵּיטֶב אֱלֹהִים לַמְיַלְּדֹת"
b) children- "וַיַּעַשׂ לָהֶם בָּתִּים"
5. דרש משה- their goal was to save the jews so their reward was that they succeeded and hashem gave them what they want
—> 2 rewards
PLAN C: THE DROWNING PLAN
What is his plan?
pharaoh commanded the Egyptians to drown every baby that is born and hero destroy the jews
how do we know that plan C seems to work?
"וַיְצַו פַּרְעֹה לְכָל עַמּוֹ"- plan C seems to work- moshes parents have to hide him in order to keep him safe
Why did pharaoh command the Egyptians to kill their own sons as well?
Rashi- astrologers predicted a jewish savior was about to be born- but they didn't know if the savior was jewish or Egyptian
Moshe had 2 "mothers"- one jewish and one Egyptian. This made the prediction unclear
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