Science 8 Final Exam Quizlet (2016-2017)
Terms in this set (175)
number of protons
shorthand for element name
average mass of all versions of an element, measured in AMU
arrangement & motion of a solid
tightly packed molecules, vibrating in place
arrangement & motion of a liquid
loose but close molecules, sliding over each other
arrangement & motion of a gas
spread out and zooming molecules
energy is added as a substance changes from a liquid to a gas
evaporation or boiling
energy is removed as a substance changes from a gas to a liquid
Dalton's idea of the atom:
small, indivisible particles that make up everything. Atoms of the same element are similar.
energy is added rapidly as a substance changes from a solid to a gas, skipping the liquid phase
energy is removed rapidly as a substance changes from a gas to a solid, skipping the liquid phase
the difference between boiling and evaporation is....
boiling happens THROUGHOUT a liquid, while evaporation occurs only at the surface and below the boiling point of that liquid
Anything with MASS and VOLUME. (and made of atoms.)
BIG IDEA: What allowed scientists to get a better and better idea of what atoms are like?
TECHNOLOGY (electricity, better microscopes, etc)
Rutherford added what to the model of the atom
NUCLEUS. He used the gold foil experiment to find out atoms were mostly empty space, and the mass was concentrated in the center nucleus.
Able to be bent/shaped by a hammer without shattering. (Opposite of brittle)
Bohr added what to the model of the atom
ORGANIZED. He organized the electrons into energy levels.
Electron Cloud Model
Current idea of atom. Says we can only PREDICT where the electrons are at any time.
how much STUFF (matter) is in an object.
how much SPACE an object takes up.
Air is matter because:
It weighs something (we proved this by weighing empty and full balloons and comparing them) PROOF OF MASS
It takes up space (we proved this by fitting an empty balloon in a cup, and a balloon full of air does not fit anymore) PROOF OF VOLUME
In the nucleus, you can find the: (which subatomic particles?)
protons and neutrons
Thompson added what to the model of the atom
ELECTRONS. He thought there were little electrons studding a positive gooey atom.
Properties of Metals
Tiny particle that makes up everything (basic building block of matter)
A PERIOD on the periodic table that has repeating properties is a row or a column?
Outside the nucleus, you can find the: (which subatomic particles?)
What is the charge of the subatomic particles?
Neutrons- NEUTRAL (no charge)
Properties of Non-Metals
Brittle (not malleable)
Able to be made into a wire shape
Metalloids have properties that are...
a bit like metals, and a bit like non-metals.
A GROUP of most similar elements on the periodic table is a row or a column?
An element is....
a unique type of atom.
made of atoms; has mass AND volume
Made of a single type of atom; PURE
Made of two or more types of atoms chemically linked; PURE
Made of two or more types of atoms NOT chemically linked; NOT PURE
Cannot be separated under normal lab conditions
Can be chemically separated (mix with acid, burn, extreme heat, etc)
Can be physically separated (filter out, pick out pieces, evaporate)
Mixture of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) & nitrogen (N2)
These atoms could be of:
Big idea for ECM
Elements combine with each other to form compounds. Compounds and/or elements and/or mixtures can combine to make up all matter in the universe.
Property of a substance that can be observed/measured without changing the substance.
Examples of physical properties
color, size, density, odor, texture, shape
Properties that describe matter based on its ability to change into new matter with different properties
Examples of chemical properties
flammability, explosiveness, reactivity,
A change that does not form a new substance. No change to molecules.
Examples of physical changes
Phase changes, cutting paper, mowing grass
The molecules that make up two or more substances are rearranged into one or more new substances that have different properties.
Examples of chemical changes
Rusting/tarnishing; bubbles forming when alka seltzer and water are mixed; burning paper
Evidence of a chemical change
Heat, bubbles, odor, color change, sound, light, energy change, new molecules form
Tool/unit for mass
Tool/unit for liquid volume
Tool/unit for volume of a regular solid
metric ruler or meter stick/cubic centimeters
Law of conservation of mass
Matter cannot be created or destroyed. Even when matter goes through physical or chemical changes, the total mass of matter always remains the same.
Large number in front of a chemical symbol/formula that tells how many molecules of that substance there is
Small number to the right of a chemical symbol that tells how many atoms of that element there are
Chemical bonds in food
Where the energy is stored in our food
More chemical bonds (such as in fat) means..
More energy in foods (more calories!)
The amount of movement of the particles that make up a substance. Also called "heat"
Not really a thing. Just a way of saying less thermal/heat energy
Is heat matter?
No, it does not have atoms, mass, or volume
Hotter matter to colder matter
The direction or way that thermal energy/heat moves
When thermal energy/heat STOPS moving, when the substances are the SAME temperature
Definition of conduction
Transfer of thermal energy due to direct contact. The thermal energy is PASSED directly from molecule to molecule. No matter moves its position.
Definition of convection
Transfer of thermal energy through currents in a fluid. The thermal energy is CARRIED by moving molecules of liquid or gas. Matter moves.
Definition of radiation
Thermal energy transfer via electromagnetic waves, the thermal energy "JUMPS" from one substance to another without the need for matter.
CLASSIFY: Shirt being pressed by a hot iron
Conduction because the shirt and the iron are in direct contact. The thermal energy is passed from the molecules of the iron to the molecules of the shirt.
CLASSIFY: Feeling the heat of a campfire while sitting far away from it
RADIATION because the thermal energy "jumps" from the fire to you via EM waves without the need for matter.
CLASSIFY: Heated goo (liquid) in a lava lamps rises while the cooler goo (liquid) sinks in a cool swirly pattern
CONVECTION because the thermal energy is carried by the moving goo (liquid) molecules.
CLASSIFY: A cat sits on a shelf above the stove to stay warm.
CONVECTION because the air molecules are warmed by the stove, rise to where the cat is sitting and then sink back down as they cool.
CLASSIFY: On a hot, sunny August day, your Dad gets a sunburn out by the pool
RADIATION because the thermal energy "jumps" from the Sun to your Dad via EM waves, without the need for matter.
CLASSIFY: Using pot holders to pull a pan out of the hot oven
CONDUCTION because the pot holders slow/prevent the thermal energy transfer due to direct contact of your hand to the pan, thermal energy is passed more slowly from the molecules of the pan to the pot holder to your hand.
CLASSIFY: A pool heater causes the water near the surface of the pool to be warmer on a cloudy day
CONVECTION because the thermal energy is carried by the water molecules that rise toward the surface of the pool as they are heated and sink back to the bottom of the pool as they cool.
CLASSIFY: A huge rock is warmed by the Sun
RADIATION because the thermal energy "jumps" from the Sun to the rock via EM waves without the need for matter.
CLASSIFY: A piece of hair is curled by a hot curling iron
CONDUCTION because there is thermal energy transfer due to direct contact from the curling iron to the hair. The thermal energy is passed from the molecules of the curling iron to the molecules of the hair.
CLASSIFY: The vinyl siding on a house is melted/warped by a house fire across the street
RADIATION because the thermal energy "jumps" from the one house to the other via EM waves without the need for matter.
Definition of an insulator
Type of matter that blocks or reduces the flow of heat, electricity, or sound.
Definition of conductor
Type of matter that allows heat, sound or electricity to pass through it easily.
These are specific kinds of conductors because they allow heat to pass through easily.
Why metal objects feel "cold" to us when we touch them with our hand
The thermal energy is transferred from our hand (the hotter matter) to the metal object (colder matter) easily since the metal is a conductor.
When thermal energy increases
The speed of the atoms/molecules of a substances increases.
When water vapor condenses into liquid water, then freezes into solid ice
Particles go from zooming freely to closer together and sliding past to tightly packed and vibrating against each other.
Relationship (link) between thermal energy and temperature
As thermal energy increases, the molecules/atoms move more quickly, and the temperature of an object increases.
What ALL waves carry!
Sound waves being reflected
Your teacher's voice hits the classroom wall and bounces (echos) back
Light waves being reflected
White light hits a mirror and bounces back
Water waves being reflected
Energy moving through a lake hits the side of a boat and bounces off
Sound waves being absorbed
During a concert, the band's music is taken into the curtains surrounding the stage and does not escape
Light waves being absorbed
A black t-shirt takes in all the colors of light and does not let any escape
Water waves being absorbed
Under water, energy is taken in by seaweed and does not escape
Sound waves being transmitted
In the hallway, you can hear a classmate's laugh pass through the closed classroom door
Light waves being transmitted
Sunlight is able to stream/pass through a transparent window
Water waves being transmitted
Energy is passed through a large tsunami wave
Source of wave energy
The place/action where the energy (sound, light, etc.) BEGINS
Receptor/destination of energy
The end point of the energy (sound, light, etc.), where it is "sensed"
The matter/material that the wave energy travels through
The height from a wave's resting point (middle) to the top (a crest) or the bottom (a trough)
Relationship between amplitude and energy
More energy = higher amplitude; less energy = lower amplitude
Loudness of a sound
When amplitude of a sound wave is increased
The part of the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that human eyes can detect
Less than 1%
How much of the visible light spectrum that humans can sense
Moving matter/ vibrations
How sound is produced
Direction waves travel from a source
Outward in all directions
Vibrations of molecules (often air)
How sound energy is passed from source to destination
a rate that measures the distance an object travels in a certain amount of time
law of conservation of energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred from one form/object to another
energy of moving objects
stored energy of object due to their POSITION
the rate at which an object moves in a certain direction (speed AND direction)
frame of reference
motion is relative; it is always described in relation to a reference point
a push or pull that can change an object's motion
unit to measure force; one of these units is equal to the force that would move a 1 kg mass one meter per second every second
a change to an object's speed (faster or slower) or direction over time
units used to represent acceleration; read as "meters per second squared"
the overall or total force on an object
when the net force is zero and there is no change in an object's motion
causes an object to have a change in its motion ("leftover" force that "wins")
a force that opposes the motion of any objects that touch
air resistance (fluid friction)
the opposing force that results from the contact between air and objects moving through it
matter's resistance to a change in motion
d = rt
formula used to find rate of a moving object
(rise/run) OR (change in y/change in x)
formula to calculate slope of a line
rate of change of a line; steepness of a line
the TOTAL distance a trip takes in the TOTAL time it takes to complete the trip
as mass increases, KE increases; as mass decreases, KE decreases
relationship between mass and KE
as velocity increases, KE increases; as velocity decreases, KE decreases
relationship between velocity and kinetic energy
gravitational potential energy
stored energy due to a position off of the Earth's surface (height)
as mass increases, PE increases; as mass decreases, PE increases
relationship between mass and potential energy
Sir Isaac Newton
scientist who studied forces and motion and came up with 3 laws of motion
abbreviation for the unit newton (used for forces)
tool used to measure force
Newton's 1st law of motion
an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion unless acted on by an unbalanced force
Newton's 2nd law of motion
the greater the mass of an object, the more force is required to move the object; the more force applied to the object, the more quickly it will change its motion
F = ma
formula to show relationship between force, mass and acceleration (Newton's 2nd Law)
Newton's 3rd law of motion
for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
moving energy can be passed on to another object, but is never destroyed; KE is transferred
the moon's path around Earth
About one month
The time it takes the moon to orbit Earth
Seeing different amounts of the moon's light each night, due to the moon's orbit around Earth
the action of Earth moving around the Sun
to spin around a central point
caused by direct sunlight and longer photoperiod
caused by indirect sunlight and shorter photoperiod
length of daylight hours
the Earth is "leaning" 23.5 degrees as it orbits the Sun
shape of Earth's orbit
NEARLY a circle (slightly oval)
an attractive force between two masses
two variables that affect strength of gravity
mass of the objects
distance between the objects
mass vs weight
amount of MATTER in an object vs. the pull of gravity on that object's matter
(mass does not change if you go to a different planet)
the study of Earth, how it formed, and the materials that make it up
the remains or traces of an ancient living thing preserved in rock
one of the large, rigid pieces of rock that make up Earth's crust
the gradual movement of the continents across the Earth's surface through geological time
the outermost rocky layer of Earth; rests on top of the mantle
the innermost layer of Earth
the layer inside Earth between the crust and the core
the up or down movement in a liquid or gas that is caused by differences in temperature
the process by which magma creates new ocean crust at the mid-ocean ridges, expanding the sea bottom
an underwater mountain chain the circles the Earth, extending through the middle of most oceans
law of superposition
the idea that in layers of the rock, the top layer is youngest and bottom layer is oldest
explains the formation and movement of Earth's plates
a mountain that forms when magma reaches the surface
super-continent proposed by Wegener when continents were all joined together as one
how new crust is created
sea-floor spreading at a mid-ocean ridge; the rocks closest to the ridge are the youngest
when old ocean plates sink into the mantle; this "recycles" or destroys old crust
divergent plate boundary
when two plates move away from each other; new crust can be formed here
convergent plate boundary
when two plates move towards each other; mountains can be formed here; old crust can be recycled here
transform plate boundary
when two plates slide past each other in opposite directions; earthquakes can often form here
edges of plate boundaries/fault lines
where earthquakes are most common to occur on Earth
sudden slip of the plates and the accompanying ground shaking
examples of slow changes on Earth
glaciers; plate tectonics; weathering/erosion; river creating a canyon
examples of fast changes on Earth
landslides; earthquakes; volcanoes; crazy weather
age of the Earth
around 4.5 - 4.6 billion years old
when humans appear on Earth
very near to the present; only about 200,000 years ago