68 terms

The Water Cycle, Aquatic Biomes, Parts of a River, Freshwater Biomes, Groundwater, Pollution

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Water Cycle
The changes to water when it evaporates into the air, condenses into the clouds, and then precipitates down to earth.
Precipitation
Water droplets fall from the atmosphere in the form of rain, sleet, snow or hail.
condensation
The cooling of water in the atmosphere changing gas to a liquid.
Evaporation
The process that occurs when water changes from a liquid to a gas, caused by heat.
Transpiration
The passage of water vapor from a plant to the atmosphere.
Run-Off
Rainfall that is not absorbed by the soil and travels to the ocean
Groundwater
Water held underground in the soil or in pores and crevices in rock.
Infiltration
the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil
Wetland
An area of land that is sometimes underwater or contains large amounts of moisture in the soil. Helps to replenish groundwater.
Marsh
a treeless wetland ecosystem where certain grasses can grow
pond
Small body of freshwater surrounded by land
lake
a large body of freshwater surrounded by land
stream
1. A channel through which water is continually flowing downhill. 2. A small river
River
A large, flowing body of water that usually empties into a sea or ocean.
Mangrove
tropical tree with roots that extend both above and beneath the water. usually found in salty water.
Sargasso Sea
This is in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean where there are floating rafts of algae
Coral reef
the most diverse marine biome on Earth, found in warm, shallow waters beyond the shoreline. Made out of a structure of calcite skeletons built up by coral animals in warm, shallow ocean water.
Estuary
A habitat in which the fresh water of a river meets the saltwater of the ocean. Often used as a breeding ground for animals.
Hydrothermal vent
opening in the ocean floor where hot gases and minerals escape from Earth's interior
Kelp forest
coastal ocean community named for its dominant organism—kelp, a giant brown alga
Swamp
low land that is seasonally flooded
River Mouth
Part of the river where it flows into an ocean or sea
Floodplain
Caused by the repeated meander or curving of a river
Upstream
Opposite of the flow of the water; toward the river mouth
Tributary
A stream of river that flows into the main river
Meander
Curves or bends that form a twisting or looping pattern in a stream channel
River Source
The furthest point inland that a river is from its mouth
Oxbow Lake
A crescent-shaped lake formed by a meander that has been cut off from the main river
Channel
The path that a stream or river follows
Deposition Caused by a River
Occurs on the inside of a bend, caused by the deposit of sediments
Downstream
With the flow of the water, toward the river mouth
Canyon
A deep ravine between cliffs, often formed by a river or stream eroding the landscape
Erosion Caused by a River
Occurs on the outside of a bend, caused by the erosion of the river bank
alluvial fan
A wide, sloping deposit of sediment formed where a stream leaves a mountain range. High energy, and deposits into different environments
Delta
A landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake. Any moving water that meets still water.
Causes of flooding
-Spring floods
-Deforestation
-Weather/flash floods
Effects of flooding
-Risk mapping (GIS)
-Leeves/dams
-Sand bags
-Channelization
-Wetlands
Porosity
Percentage of open spaces/holes in a rock.
Permability
How fast fluids can flow through.
Aquifers
Saturated rock through which water can move easily.
Saturated zone
All rock openings are filled up with water
Water table
The upper level of the saturated zone of groundwater
Capillary fringe
A transition zone with higher moisture content. Affected by season and slope
perched water table
Separated from the main water table.
Effects of pumping too much water
-Pumping water out of the ground faster than it can be replenished can lead to groundwater depletion.
-Large bodies of water will become more shallow from groundwater depletion.
Hard water
Water that contains minerals such as calcium and Magnesium, that reduce the ability of soap or shampoo to lather.
Water conservation examples
-Taking shorter showers
-Using rainwater to water plants.
-Turn off water while brushing teeth
-Check for leaks in your house
Causes of pumping too much water
-Agricultural needs require a large amount of groundwater.
-A lack of groundwater limits biodiversity and dangerous sinkholes result from depleted aquifers.
Eutrophication
-An increase in the amount of nutrients, such as nitrates, in a marine or aquatic ecosystem. Can cause the overgrowth of aquatic plants in an ecosystem.
-Cuts off light and oxygen levels
Threats to estuaries
-Trash
-Pollutants such as: sewage, pesticides, fertilizers, and toxic chemicals.
3 stages of a river
1. Youthful
2. Mature
3. Old
Characteristics of a Youthful river
-V-shaped valley
-Few tributaries
-Little water
-Lots of waterfalls
Characteristics of a Mature river
-Lots of tributaries
-Starts to meander
-Oxbow Lake
Characteristics of a Old river
-Few tributaries
-lots of meandering
Aquaculture
farming of plants and animals that live in water, such as fish, shellfish, and algae.
Point source pollution
pollution that comes from a specific site

Ex: Factory
Nonpoint source pollution
pollution that comes from many sources rather than from a single, specific site

Ex: cars
Types of pollution
-Pesticides/Herbicides
-City Dumps/Rain
-Heavy Metals (Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, etc)
-Septic Tanks
-Farm Animals/Waste
-Acid from Mines
-Nuclear Power
-Arsenic
Artesian Aquifer
Pressurized water and separated with impermeable rock
Artesian well
A well in which water rises above the aquifer
Hot Springs
Geysers
Aquaponics and Hydroponics
Fish secrete Ammonia that is bad for them, but good for plants. Plants filter ammonia and make water good again for fish. Water is recycled.
Natural form of pollution
-Storm water Run-Off
-Sedimentation
Examples of water diseases
-Cholera
-Malaria
-Botulism
-Dysentery
-Typhoid Fever
-River Blindness
-Tapeworms
Tests for water quality (chemical)
-Nitrates (fertilizer)
-Phosphates (detergents)
-pH (acid rain)
-Total Dissolved Solids
-Alkalinity (how basic)
-Heavy Metals
-Dissolved Oxygen (life)
-Water Hardness
Tests for water quality (physical)
-Turbidity (clarity)
-Salinity (salt)
-Color
-Taste/Odor
-Temperature
Tests for water quality (Biological)
Biotic Index - Macroinvertebrates
Soft water
The removal of minerals such as Calcium and Magnesium from water
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
STUDY GUIDE

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com.
Click to see the original works with their full license.