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Section 2 Worksheet

2 major anatomical parts of the immune system

1) Specialized immune cells (ex. leukocytes)
2) Lymphoid organs and tissues (ex. bone marrow)

Cells of the immune system originate in ________. These cells are called ______ when traveling in the blood and are classified according to the shape of their nucleus and the colors of their granules when stained.

Bone marrow, leukocytes


Multilobed nucleus
Pale-staining granules


Small leukocyte, round nucleus
No prominent granules


large leukocyte, U-shape nucleus
no prominent granules


Bilobed nucleus with granules
No prominent granules


Large granules hide lobed nucleus
stains blue/purple


Neutrophils (blood
Macrophages (tissue)

Antigen-presenting cells

Dendritic cells (tissue)
Macrophages (tissue)
B cells (blood)

Effector Cells of adaptive immunity

B and T cells (blood)

Other Specialized Immune Cells

Mast Cells (tissue)

Both B and T cells originate from _______.

Bone Marrow

The B cells mature in the _________.

Bone marrow

The T cells mature in the ________.


Secondary Lymphoid Organs

A) Lymph nodes
B) Spleen
C) Peyer's patches
D) Appendix
E) Tonsils

3 Parts of the Lymphatic System

1) Lymphatic Vessels
2) Lymph
3) Lymph Nodes

How many liters or interstitial fluid is returned to the cardiovascular system per day?

3 L/Day

If lymphatic vessels do not function properly, there will be a buildup of fluid in the tissues. This condition is called ________.


The lymphatic capillaries have ______ valves to collect the excess interstitial fluid and any leaked proteins.


The lymph is filtered through the _________ where antigens and pathogens are removed and the immune system can be activated.

Lymph Nodes

Special lymphatic capillaires in the intestines, called ______, transport absorbed ______ from the intestines into the blood.

Lacteals, Fat

2 Functions of the lymph nodes

1) removal of antigens and other debris
2) activation of the immune system (B and T cells)

While _____ lymphatic vessels carry lymph from the tissues to the lymph nodes, _______ vessels carry cleansed lymph away from the lymph nodes.

afferent, efferent

___ cells are found in the germinal centers of lymphoid follicles, and ____ cells wander through the deep _____, searching dendritic cells for their special antigen.

B, T, Cortex

3 Functions of the Spleen

1) Removes pathogens, aged erythrocytes and platelets
2) Stores platelets and breakdown products of erythrocytes
3) Site for activation of the immune system


mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
-peyer's patches, tonsils, appendix
-respiratory system

The ______, a primary lymphoid organ, is the site for differentiation of lymphocytes into mature T cells.


What happens to the thymus as we age?

The thymus decreases in size and activity

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