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When the wind blows hard, the plants with strong stems survive better for the plants with weaker stems. What is the selection pressure?
A farmer pulls up and throws away cabbage plants that aren't big enough to bring to the market. What is the selection pressure?
Dark fur colored mice survive better than white fur colored mice who are hunted and killed by predators. What is the selection pressure?
During the industrial revolution factories polluted the air, making it dark and dirty. The frequency of black moths icreased to 99% of the moth population. What is the selection pressure?
The polluted air
List 5 examples of structural adaptations
Beak size and shape, fur color, stem strength, type of ears, structure of legs, thick feathers
List 5 examples of behavioral adaptations
Mating call, warning call, feeding behaviors, flying south, hibernating
What happens when some individuals in a population have traits that make them better adapted to the environment? Give an example
The better adapted reproduce and the others die off. Example: pocket mice in the desert
Define natural selection
The differences in survival and reproduction among members of a population as a result of selection pressure
Describe the process of artificial selection
Intentional reproduction of individuals in a population to get a desired trait. This is done by choosing individuals with desired traits and mating or breeding them.
What is a genetic mutation?
A random change in the sequence of a gene that changes the way a trait is expressed
Explain how mutations can be beneficial or harmful to a population
Beneficial mutations allow individuals in a population to survive and reproduce while harmful mutations do not allow individuals in a population to survive and reproduce.
The dog breeds we have today we're developed through ________________
Explain the difference between homologous and analogous structures
Homologous structures are structures that are similar in related organisms because they were inherited from a common ancestor. These structures may or may not have the same function in the descendants. Analogous structures are structures that are similar in unrelated organisms. The structures are similar because they evolved to do the same job, not because they were inherited from a common ancestor.
What is a vestigial structure?
Structures that have lost their use through evolution. They provide evidence for evolution because they suggest that an organism changed from using the structure to not using the structure, or using it for a different purpose.
What is the difference between relative dating and radioactive dating?
Relative dating uses the layers of sedimentary rock to determine the age of fossils. In radioactive dating scientists use half-life and their knowledge about how much carbon 14 is in a particular sample to calculate the actual age of a rock or fossil. Scientists know the time it takes for half the amount of a radioactive element to change into a new element. This length of time is called the element's half-life.
When Darwin went to the galapogos what was he studying?
Finches and their beak size. He came up with the idea of natural selection.
What is the result of natural selection?
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