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the term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are appraised as threatening or challenging


events that cause a stress reaction


the effect of unpleasant and undesirable stressors


positive stress


an unpredictable, large scale event that creates a tremendous need to adapt and adjust as well as overwhelming feelings of threat.

the social readjustment scale

assessment that measures the amount of stress in a person's life over a one-year period resulting from major life events.


adjustments and changes are really at the ____ of stress

holmes and rache

In 1967, ______________ created the social readjustment rating scale (SRRS)


people under a lot of stress tend to be more _________ and less cautious and therefore place themselves at a greater risk for having an accident

college undergraduate stress scale

(CUSS) assessment that measures the amount of stress in a college students life over a one-year period result in form major life events.


the daily annoyances of everyday life.

short term illness

the day-to-day annoyances, delay, and irritation that affect immediate health and well-being are fdar better predictors of _____________ such as headaches, colds, backaches, and similar symptoms.


the psychological experience produced by urgent demands or expectations for a persons behaviors that come from an outside source

time pressure

____________ is one of the most common forms of pressure


when time pressure is applied to worders who are trying to come up with creative, innovative ideas, creativity levels __________ dramatically.


the less ______ a person has, the greater degree of stress.


the psychological experience produced by the blocking of a desires goal or fulfillment of a perceived need.

external frustration

losses, rejections, failures,, and delays are all sources of _________________.

internal frustration

also known as personal frustrations, occur when the goal or need cannot be attained because of internal or personal characteristics.


the continuation for efforts to get around whatever is causing the frustration. the is the first reaction of frustration


actions meant to harm or destroy

frustration- aggression hypothesis

connection between frustration and aggression


_________ with someone is a form of persistence

displaced aggression

taking out one's frustrations on some less threatening or more available target, a form of displacement


psychological defense mechanism in which emotional reactions and behavioral responses are shifted to targets that are more available or less threatening than the original target.


habitual targets of displaced aggression

escape or withdrawal

leaving the presence of a stressor either literally or by a psychological withdrawal into fantasy, drug abuse, or apathy


the psychological distress occurring when a person has to choose between different and incompatible or opposing goals.

approach-approach conflict

conflict occurring when a person must choose between two desirable goals.

avoidance-avoidance conflict

conflict occurring when a person must choose between two undesirable goals.

approach-avoidance conflict

conflict occurring when a person must choose or not choose a goal that has both positive and negative aspects

automatic nervous system

ans, the part of the human nervous system that is responsible for automatic, involuntary, and life-sustaining activities.

2 divisions of automatic nervous system

parasympathetic and sympathetic

general adaptation syndrome

(GAS) the three stages of the body's physiological reaction to stress, including alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.

adapt to life

alarm and resistance are stages that people experience many times throughout life, allowing people to ______________ demands.

immune system

the system of cells, organs and chemicals of the body that responds to attacks from diseases, infections and injuries. it is effected by stress


concerns the study of the effects of psychological factors such as stress, emotions, thinking, and behavior on the immune system

infections trigger

stress triggers the same response int he immune system that infection triggers


stress activates this same system by starts in the _____ rather than in the bloodstream


aids humans in stress toleration by regulating the effects of stress on the hippocampus

higher risk

stress has been shown to put people at a ___________ of heart attacks and strokes at least in part because the liver does not have a chance to clear the fat and cholesterol from the bloodstream

heart disease

biological risk factors for ______________: obesity, high blood sugar, high triglycerides, and low levels of HDL or "good" cholesterol.

type 2 diabetes

disease involving failure of the pancreas to secrete enough insulin, necessitating medication, usually diagnosed before the age of 40 and can be associated with obesity.


diabetes has now been associated with an ___________ risk of Alzheimer's disease


_______ is not one disease but rather a collection of diseases that can affect any part of the body.


normal cells ______ and reproduce according to genetic instructions and stop dividing according the same instruction, but cancer cells ______ without stopping.

natural killer cell

immune system cell responsible for suppressing viruses and destroying tumor cells.

other health issues

______________ that are caused by stress: changes in the immune system's ability to fight off inflammation, children are more likely to develop fevers with illness than are other children, children stress actually sens to improve the function of their natural killer cells, and also depression and HIV/AIDS.

healthy psychology

area of psychology focusing on how physical activities, psychological traits, and social relationships affect overall health and rate of illnesses.

richard lazarus

developed a cognitive view of of stress called the cognitive-meditation theory of emotions, in which the way people think about and appraise a stressor is a major factor in how stressful that particular stressor becomes.

primary appraisal

the first step in assessing stress, which involves estimating the severity of a stressor and classifying it as either a threat or a challenge.

secondary appraisal

the second step in assessing a threat, which involves estimating the resources available to the person for coping with the stressor


how one cognitively assesses a stressor has a lot to do with one's ______________.

type A personality

person who is ambitious, time conscious, extremely hardworking, and rends to have high levels of hostility and anger as well as being easily annoyed.

type B personality

person who is relaxed and laid-back, less driven and less competitive than Type A, and slow to anger.

type C personality

pleasant but repressed person, who tends to internalize his or her anger and anxiety and who finds expressing emotions difficult

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