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According to Erikson, once preschoolers have a sense of autonomy, they become less _______ than they were as toddlers.


For Erikson, the negative outcome of early childhood is an overly strict ________ that causes children to feel too much _________ because they have been threatened, criticized, and punished excessively by adults.

superego; guilt

Erikson's image of _______ captures the diverse changes in young children's emotional and social lives.


As self-awareness strengthens, preschoolers begin to develop a


Preschoolers self-concepts

are very concrete.

If you ask 3-year-old Winnie to tell you about herself, she will probably describe herself in terms of

observable characteristics.

The stronger children's self-definition is, the more ________ they tend to be.


When trying to promote friendly peer interaction in her preschool classroom, Miss Dodge should

encourage compromise rather than insisting on sharing.

___________ are a major means through which caregivers imbue the young child's self-concept with cultural values.


In a study of middle-SES Irish-American families in Chicago and Chinese families in Taiwan, Chinese parents

frequently told their preschoolers stories about the child's misdeeds.

Four-year-old Hobie is asked to rate his competence in ice skating. He will probably

rate his own ability as extremely high and underestimate the difficulty of skating.

During the preschool years, high self-esteem

greatly contributes to children's initiative during a period in which they must master many new skills.

Adults can avoid promoting self-defeating reactions in children by

adjusting their expectations to children's capacities.

Preschoolers are especially likely to engage in emotion talk

during make-believe play.

______________ contributes to preschoolers improved emotional self-regulation.


Research on emotional self-regulation demonstrates that

preschoolers know they can blunt emotions by restricting sensory input.

Inhibiting impulses and shifting attention through _____________ are vital in managing emotion during early childhood.

effortful control

Four-year-old Tristan experiences negative emotion intensely. He is more likely than other children to

react with anger or aggression when he is frustrated.

Preschoolers self-conscious emotions are

clearly linked to self-evaluation.

When 4-year-old Katherine throws a beanbag, her dad comments, You stood still as you were throwing. Now try taking a step toward me as you throw. Assuming Katherine's dad regularly gives this sort of feedback, which of the following is most likely true?

Katherine is likely to show moderate levels of shame and pride and greater persistence on difficult tasks.

Among Western children, when guilt occurs in appropriate circumstances and is not accompanied by shame, it is related to

good adjustment.

An important motivator of prosocial behavior is



can escalate self-focused personal distress in some children.

Children who are sociable and assertive are

more likely to help, share, and comfort others in distress.

Two-year-old Darcy has parents who encourage emotional expressiveness and show empathetic concern for her feelings. When another child is unhappy, Darcy is likely to respond with

sympathetic concern.

Children who are unable to regulate their emotions

display less pro-social behavior and sympathetic concern.

According to Mildred Parten, two forms of true social interaction are ________ and __________ play.

associative; cooperative

Follow-up research on peer sociability indicates that

all types of play coexist in early childhood.

Max plays with a funnel at one end of the sand table, while Madison makes a pie at the other end. The children talk and pass tools back and forth. They are engaging in __________ play.


Candace and Christina sit side by side playing with their dolls. They do not talk or try to influence each other. They are engaging in _______ play.


Research on peer sociability demonstrates that

preschoolers move from one type of play to another and back again.

Larissa, age 3, often plays alone. Her parents should be concerned if she

engages in functional play involving repetitive motor action.

Four- to 7-year-olds regard friendship as

pleasurable play and sharing of toys.

Frank, a kindergartener, says that Pat is his best friend on days they get along. But when a dispute arises, he reverses himself: Pat is not my friend! Franks parents should

not be concerned because friendships in early childhood do not have a long-term, enduring quality based on mutual trust.

Research on friendships shows that

the ease with which kindergarteners make new friends predicts behaviors linked to gains in achievement.

Which of the following is an example of a direct parental influence on childrens peer sociability?

Maxine arranges for her 4-year-old to play with his friend at the park.

Research on parental influences on childrens peer sociability shows that

preschoolers whose parents arrange play dates tend to have larger peer networks.

Most theories of moral development agree that at first, a childs morality is

externally controlled by adults.

Truly moral individuals

have developed compassionate concerns and principles of good conduct.

Psychoanalytic theory stresses

the emotional side of conscience development.

According to Freud, children

act morally to avoid punitive feelings of guilt from their superego.

Research reveals that inductive discipline

helps children notice others feelings and points out the effects of children's misbehavior on others.

Which of the following statements is an example of induction?

Your sister is crying because you wont give back her truck.

Although good discipline is crucial, ___________ is also influential in conscience development.

a childs temperament

Maureen and Chris, the parents of an impulsive preschooler, can foster conscience development by

combining firm correction with induction.

Current research indicates that Freud was correct that

guilt is an important motivator of moral action.

According to social learning theorists, children learn to behave morally

by observing and imitating people who demonstrate appropriate behavior.

Frequent punishment

promotes immediate compliance, but not lasting changes in behavior.

Which of the following is true about the effects of harsh punishment?

Harsh punishment induces a sense of being personally threatened.

Mia bit her brother, so her father would not let her watch TV. This technique, known as withdrawal of privileges,

allows Mia's father to avoid harsh techniques that could easily intensify into violence.

Studies suggest that time out is useful as a disciplinary technique

when a child is out of control.

Research on the consequences of corporal punishment reveals that in African-American families,

the more mothers discipline physically in childhood, the less their teenagers display angry, acting out behavior.

Research on corporal punishment shows that spanking is

associated with a rise in problem behaviors if parents are cold and rejecting but not if they are warm and supportive.

Martha and Thomas can increase the effectiveness of their parental discipline by

offering reasons for mild punishment.

One strategy of positive discipline is

reducing opportunities for misbehavior.

In contrast to the psychoanalytic and behaviorist approaches to morality, the cognitive-developmental perspective

regards children as active thinkers about social rules.

Preschoolers distinguish ___________, which protect peoples rights and welfare, from ___________, which do not violate rights and are up to the individual.

moral imperatives; matters of personal choice

Four-year-old Ellie is shown two pictures: one depicting a child stealing an apple, and the other showing a child eating ice cream with her fingers. Ellie is most likely to view

the stealing as worse than the bad table manners.

Shelby tells her classmates not to play with Sophia because she lies. This is an example of __________ aggression.


Marlena teases Jessica by calling her a dodo head. This is an example of ________ aggression.


_________ aggression in verbal and ________ forms tends to rise over early and middle childhood.

Reactive; relational

Which of the following is supported by research on sex differences in aggression?

Although girls have a reputation for being both more verbally and relationally aggressive than boys, the sex difference is small.

Reviewers of thousands of studies have concluded that TV violence

increases the likelihood of hostile thoughts and aggressive behaviors in viewers.

Which of the following statements is supported by research on television programming and aggression?

Cartoons are the most violent TV programs.

Which of the following statements is supported by research on viewing television violence?

Aggressive children have a greater appetite for violent TV programming than nonaggressive children.

In the United States, __________ has hampered efforts to regulate TV content.

the First Amendment right to free speech

At present, ___________ bear(s) most responsibility for protecting children from exposure to media violence and other inappropriate content.


In Michaelas preschool classroom, the girls spend more time in the housekeeping and art centers, while the boys play with blocks and Legos. This is an example of

gender typing.

During early childhood, childrens gender-stereotyped beliefs

strengthen so much that many children apply them as blanket rules that should not be violated.

Which of the following preschoolers is most likely to be shunned by agemates?

a boy who wears nail polish

Research on gender typing reveals that

the presence of male sex hormones leads to a rough, noisy play style in boys.

Which of the following is supported by research on gender typing?

By age 6, children spend 11 times as much time with same-sex as with other-sex playmates.

Research on environmental influences on gender typing suggests that parents

have different expectations for sons than for daughters.

The case of David Reimer, the boy who was raised as a girl after a circumcision accident, demonstrates

the impact of genetic sex and prenatal hormones on a persons sense of self as male or female.

David Reimers gender reassignment failed because his

male biology overwhelmingly demanded a consistent sexual identity.

Research on environmental influences on gender typing shows that teachers

give girls more encouragement than boys to participate in adult-structured activities.

The more preschoolers play with same-sex playmates, the

more their behavior becomes gender typed.

Maria more positively evaluates girls than boys. This is an example of

in-group favoritism.

Mark rates his personality as ambitious, competitive, affectionate, cheerful, and soft-spoken. Marks responses indicate a(n)

androgynous gender identity.

Research on gender identity demonstrates that

masculine and androgynous children have a higher self-esteem than those with a feminine identity.

According to social learning theory, __________ come(s) before __________ in the development of gender identity.

behavior; self-perceptions

Six-year-old Charlie realizes that his sister remains a girl even when she operates a bulldozer. Charlie has acquired the concept of gender


Children younger than age 6 who watch an adult dress a doll in other-gender clothing typically

insist that the dolls sex has also changed.

Research on gender constancy demonstrates that

attainment of gender constancy is strongly related to the ability to pass Piagetian conservation and verbal appearancereality tasks.

Gender schema theory

explains how environmental pressures and children's cognitions work together to shape gender-role development.

Molly says, Only girls can be nurses. Molly

is a gender-schematic child.

Nathan is shown a picture of a male nurse. Later, when asked to describe the occupation of the person in the picture, Nathan remembers him as a doctor. Nathan

is a gender-schematic child.

Douglas does not like volleyball. Douglas concludes that only girls like volleyball. Douglas

is a gender-schematic child.

By middle childhood, children who hold flexible beliefs about what boys and girls can do

are more likely to notice instances of gender discrimination.

The ____________ child-rearing style is the most successful approach.


Authoritarian parents

rarely listen to the child's point of view.

Permissive parents

are warm but overindulgent.

Which of the following is true about the authoritative child-rearing style?

Authoritative parents insist on mature behavior, give reasons for their expectations, and use teaching moments to promote the childs self-regulation.

Bobby is anxious, unhappy, and has low self-esteem. When frustrated, Bobby tends to react with hostility. His parents are most likely to fit which of the following child-rearing styles?


Which of the following is true about the permissive child-rearing style?

Instead of gradually granting autonomy, permissive parents allow children to make many of their own decisions at an age when they are not yet capable of doing so.

Tanners parents are withdrawn. They make no demands of Tanner and are indifferent to his point of view. Tanners parents have a(n) ____________ style of child rearing.


Uninvolved parenting

is, at its extreme, a form of child maltreatment called neglect.

__________ commit the vast majority of child abuse incidents.


Mothers engage in _________ more often than fathers, whereas fathers engage in __________ more often than mothers.

neglect; sexual abuse

_________ and __________ are at the greatest risk for physical, emotional, and sexual abuse.

Preschool; school-age children

Which of the following children is the most likely to become a target of child abuse?

Cole, a premature baby

Maltreating parents

suffer from biased thinking about their child.

Research on child maltreatment shows that

maltreating parents lack lifelines to others and have no one to turn to in stressful times.

Which of the following is supported by research on child maltreatment?

Every industrialized country except the United States and Canada prohibits corporal punishment in school.

At school, maltreated children

present serious discipline problems.

Priscilla was abused by her mother. She does not want to repeat the cycle with her own children. Which of the following interventions is the most likely to help Priscilla?

Developing a trusting relationship with another person.

In an evaluation of its effectiveness, Healthy Families home visitation alone reduced only neglect, not abuse. But adding __________ dramatically increased its impact.

a cognitive component

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