BIOLOGY FINAL REVIEW
Terms in this set (123)
What are the steps in the Scientific Method?
observation, hypothesis, experiment, analysis of data, and conclusion
what is an experiment where testing the conducted variable is changes only by the person conducting that experiment?
what is the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up and breaks down materials?
what is a metabolic pathway that absorbs energy to build complex molecules?
what is a metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules?
what is the structure of ATP?
adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups
How is ATP related to anabolism?
its a product
How is ATP related to catabolism?
its a reactant
what is the equation for anabolism?
ADP + Pi --> ATP
what is the equation for catabolism?
ATP --> ADP + Pi
How is ATP related to metabolism?
anabolic and catabolic pathways are metabolic pathways
what allows the exchange of gases in plants?
what are a pair of curved cells that surround a stoma, becoming larger or smaller according to pressure within cells?
what is the inner membrane folded into individual "disc shaped sacs" where light dependent reactions occur in plants?
what is the outer membrane, where light independent reactions occur in plants?
what is the green pigment found inside a thylakoid?
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
CO2 + H2O --> Sugars and O2
what are the inputs of light independent?
H2O + Light
what are the outputs of light independent?
what is the inputs of light dependent?
what is the output of light dependent?
what is the overview of cellular respiration?
glycolysis - Krebs Cycle - Electron Transport
are photosynthesis and cellular respiration opposite?
what breaks down sugars by using and producing 2 net ATP, NADH, and 2 pyruvic acids?
what cycle produces carbon dioxide, ATP, NADH, and FADH2?
what type of respiration requires oxygen?
what type of respiration doesn't require oxygen?
what is the input for glycolysis?
what are the outputs of glycolysis?
NADH, 2 net ATPs, and 2 pyruvic acids
where does glycolysis occur?
what are the inputs of the Krebs cycle?
what are the products of the krebs cycle?
carbon dioxide, 2 ATP, NADH, and FADH 2
where does the Krebs Cycle occur?
what are the products of the Electron Transport Chain?
32 ATP and water
where does the electron transport chain occur?
inner membrane of the mitochondria
what are the grand totals for all three processes?
carbon dioxide, water, and 36 ATP
what deals with lactic acid fermentation?
what deals with alcoholic fermentation?
what are the total end products of fermentation?
2 ethyl alcohol and 2 lactic acid
what limits cell size?
information overload and exchanging materials
what is the production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent?
what is the fusion of two separate parent cells?
what is a threadlike structure within the nucleus that contains genetic information that is passed on from one generation to the next?
what contains singular circular DNA molecule, chromosome, found in the cytoplasm?
what contains more than one chromosome found inside a nucleus?
what are the phases of the cell cycle for eukaryotic cells ?
interphase, prophase, anaphase, and telophase
what phase has G1, Synthesis, and G2 occur?
when do chromosomes become visible, centrioles migrate to the poles, nuclear membranes disappear, nucleolus disappears, and a spindle forms?
when do chromosomes line up on the equator and the spindle attaches?
when do chromatids seperate and move to opposite poles?
when do chromosomes disappear, nucleus membrane forms, nucleoli reappears, spindle disappears, and centrioles duplicate?
what cell forms a cell wall in the middle of the cell in order to divide the new cells during cytokinesis?
what happens when the body cells lose ability to control growth?
who's work was controlling fertilization in order to record data, to compare the genetic differences to other hybrids?
what are the female parts of a flower?
what are the male parts of a flower?
anther and filament
what are the dominant characteristics in which the child will most likely inherit?
what are less likely characteristics in which the child will inherit?
what is an alternative form of a gene?
what is a genetic physical characteristics of an organism?
what is the genetic makeup of an organism?
what are two different alleles that can be identified as : Tt?
what are two of the same alleles and can be either dominant or recessive?
what are two factors controlling a given characteristics, one of which dominates the other, and these factors separate and go different gametes during gamete formation?
law of segregation
what are genes for different traits can segregates independently during the formation of gametes?
law of independent assortment
what are cases in which one allele in not completely dominant over another?
what are cases in which the phenotypes produced by both alleles clearly expressed?
what is a gene with more than two alleles?
what are traits controlled by two or more genes?
how many gametes are formed at the end of meiosis?
what is made out of a double helix, with a sugar phosphate background, and contains purines and pyrimidines?
what are the components of DNA?
thymine, cytosine, adenine, and guanine
who discovered that the percentage of adenine and thymine were almost equal, and guanine and cytosine were almost equal?
what is it called when the two sugar-phosphate backbones are oriented in opposite direction?
what types of bonds bond nitrogenous bases in DNA?
what are the building blocks of proteins?
what is an enzyme that separates double-stranded DNA into single strands allowing each strand to be copied?
what is the enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA?
what contains instructions to make proteins?
what controls the assembly of amino acids into proteins?
what RNA carries copies of instructions for assembling amino acids into proteins?
what type of RNA forms sub units of ribosomes?
what RNA transfers each amino acids to the ribosome as it is specified by the coded messages in RNA
which enzyme guide the process of transcription?
where does transcription occur?
what are portions that are cut out and discarded?
what are remaining parts of RNA that are spliced back together to form a final mRNA?
what is the central dogma?
DNA strand --> mRNA --> protein
what are deletion, duplication, inversion, and translocation?
what are substitution, insertions, and deletions?
what are chemical or physical agents in the environment?
what is a picture of all chromosomes inside the nucleus of an eukaryotic organism during cell division?
what are lined up with the 44 autosomes and the 2 gametes at the end?
how many chromosomes are found in a normal human karyotype?
what is a chromosome that is not connected with sex determination?
what are the sex chromosomes for females?
what are the sex chromosomes in males?
how many chromosomes are found in gametes?
what was Darwin's contribution to the idea that living things can change overtime?
species vary globally, locally, and overtime
what is a heritable characteristic that increases an organisms ability to survive and reproduce in its environment?
what is how well an organism can survive and reproduce in its environment?
what is a change in genetic makeup of a population over time?
what is the process by which organisms with variations most suited to their local environment survive and leave more offspring?
what are the three factors of natural selection?
the struggle for existence, heritable change, and variable fitness
what is the living species are descended with modification, from common ancestors?
principle of common descent
what are inherited from ancestors but have lost much or all of their original function due to different selection pressures acting on the descent?
what are body parts that share common function, but not structure?
what are structures that are shared by related species and that have been inherited from common ancestor?
what is the evidence of evolution?
what is the study of where organisms live now and where they are their ancestors lived in the past?
what is a random change in allele frequencies that occur in a small population?
what is a large population, then disaster occurs causing only a few survivors to survive?
what is when a smaller genetic diversity that is formed from a population that came from a small number of ancestors?
what is the change in allele frequencies that occur when individuals move into or out of a population?
What is a form of reproductive isolation in which two or more species reproduces at different times?
What is a form of reproductive isolation in which two populations are separated by geographic barriers, leading to the formation of subspecies?
What is an error in meiosis in which the homologous chromosomes fail to separate properly?
How many autosomes in a gamete?
What are the RNA involved in translation?
mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA
What does the electron transport chain produce?
32 ATP and water
What happens in the thylakoids, starts with light and water, produces energy and oxygen, and the products then go into glucose?
What occurs in the stroma, starts with energy, reducing power, and carbon dioxide, and produces glucose?
What are the three processes of photosynthesis?
Carbon fixation, reduction, and regeneration of the starting material