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JTCC History Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (78)
popularly known as the
he was a field marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
a Georgian-Soviet revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He
governed the Soviet Union
from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
African-American military pilots
who fought in World War II.
Bataan Death March
Japanese forced 76,000 captured Allied soldiers (Filipinos and Americans) to march about 80 miles across the Bataan Peninsula.
military strike by the Imperial Japanese
Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
Japanese prefecture comprising more than 150 islands in the East China Sea between Taiwan and Japan's mainland.
Japanese city that
suffered an allied nuclear attack
in August 1945.
series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces after World War II, which were most notable for the
prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, judicial and economic leadership of Nazi Germany.
German politician who was the
leader of the Nazi Party and was Chancellor of Germany
from 1933 to 1945.
Allied conferences were held here during the Cold War.
Formed near the end of World War II; created an opportunity for the nations of the world to try to
prevent future global wars.
led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War.
(He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers.)
Harry S. Truman
of the United States (took office after the death of Franklin D.) He is known for
launching the Marshall Plan
, leading the Cold War against Soviet and Chinese communism by establishing the
Truman Doctrine and NATO
, and for intervening in the Korean War.*
military doctrine and nuclear strategy in which a state commits itself to retaliate in much greater force in the event of an attack.
Bay of Pigs
failed military invasion of Cuba
undertaken by the CIA-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961.
a Chinese communist revolutionary and
founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he governed as the Chairman of the Communist Party
of China from its establishment in 1949, until his death in 1976.
United States Army general, who most notably commanded U.S. ground forces during the Vietnam War
from 1964 to 1968.
Executive Order 9981
an executive order issued on July 26, 1948,
by President Harry S. Truman. It abolished racial discrimination in the United States Armed Forces
and eventually led to the end of segregation in the services.
was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from October 1967 until October 1991. He was the Court's
first African-American justice.
Executive Order 9066
was a United States
presidential executive order signed and issued during World War II by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt
on February 19, 1942. This order authorized the Secretary of War to prescribe
certain areas as military zones, clearing the way for the incarceration of Japanese Americans, German Americans, and Italian Americans to American concentration camps.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting. Signed by Lyndon Johnson.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
an American Baptist minister and
activist who was a leader in the Civil Rights Movement.
He is best known for his
"I had a dream" speech
and for his role in the advancement of civil rights using
nonviolent civil disobedience
based on his Christian beliefs.
Dr. Jonas Salk
He discovered and developed one of the first successful polio vaccines.
the first American woman in space.
President of the United States from 1974 to 1977,
following the resignation of Richard Nixon.
Ruth Bader Ginsberg
Ruth Bader Ginsburg is an
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court
of the United States. Ginsburg was appointed by President Bill Clinton.
Nicknamed "Monty" and the "Spartan General", was a senior
British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.
General of the Imperial Japanese Army, the leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association
, and the
27th Prime Minister of Japan
during much of World War II
the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the
Allied invasion of Normandy
in Operation Overlord during World War II
naval battle in the Pacific Theater
of World War II. Between 4 and 7 June 1942, only six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.
atomic bomb was dropped on this city
Navajo Code Talkers
associated with bilingual Navajo speakers specially recruited during World War II by the Marines to serve in their standard communications units in the Pacific Theater.
Code talking, however, was pioneered by Cherokee and Choctaw Indians during World War I.
internment of Japanese Americans in the United States during World War II
was the forced relocation and incarceration in camps in the western interior of the country of between 110,000 and 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry, most of whom lived on the Pacific coast.
At the end of the Second World War, U.S., British, and Soviet military forces divided and occupied Germany.
investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives.
There job was to to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having communist ties.
an American five-star general and field marshal of the Philippine Army.
He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army
during the 1930s and
played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II.
Cuban revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008. Politically a Marxist-Leninist and Cuban nationalist, he also served as the
First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba.
John F. Kennedy
of the United States from January 1961 until his
in November 1963. Kennedy
served at the height of the Cold War,
and much of his presidency focused on managing relations with the Soviet Union.
of the United States from 1969 until 1974, when he became the only U.S. president to
resign from office.
one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War. It was a
campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that
outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.
Brown v. Board
Topeka board of education denied Linda Brown admittance to an all white school close to her house. Thurgood Marshall argued that a separate but equal violated equal protection clause of the 14th amendment. Warren decided separate educational facilities were inherently unequal.
(It was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. )
spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon.
Mission commander Neil Armstrong and pilot Buzz Aldrin, both American
A black civil rights activist in the 1960's. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying,"black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."
first democratic president since Jimmy Carter and a self-proclaimed activist. 42nd president of the united states.
Sandra Day O'Conner
The first woman to be in the Supreme Court. Appointed by Ronald Reagan, O'Connor was an Associate Justice from 1981 until 2006
39th President of the United States who was a peanut farmer and former governor of Georgia. He tried to rally the American spirit in the face of economic decline, but was unable to stop the rapid increase in inflation. After leaving the presidency, he achieved widespread respect as an elder statesman and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002. He stressed human rights.
he became the second African American to hold a seat in the Supreme Court appointed by Bush who was narrowly confirmed despite charges of sexual harassment.
George C. Marshall
General who was the army chief of staff who supported a plan for a major Allied invasion of France across the English Channel in the spring of 1943.
Rosie the Riveter
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to "do their part" in the war.
Siege of Stalingrad
Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union.
A conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Vietnam.
One of the Bloodiest battles in the war, a fight to the death for Japanese soldiers, as the Americans were coming closer to Japan
Battle of Britain
battle that took place in the airspace over UK. Air campaign held by German Air Force against UK. It was first major german defeat. Caused Hitler to postpone planned invasion of Britain; he would invade Soviet Union instead.
Plan for the extermination of the Jewish population in Nazi-occupied Europe; a total of six million Jews were killed in death camps such as those established at Auschwitz, Belzec, Majdanek, Sobibor, and Treblinka.
Office of Strategic Services
a conference that agreed on the surrender of Nazi Germany, status of Poland, citizens of the Soviet Union and of Yugoslavia were to be handed over to their respective countries, regardless of their consent, the United Nations once it was agreed that each of the five permanent members of the Security Council would have veto power, and Stalin's entry against Japan.
George C. Marshall's plan to provide economic assistance to all European nations that would join in drafting a program for recovery. Sixteen western nations participated.
The armies of North Korea invaded the pro-Western half of the Korean peninsula to the South. Within days, they had occupied much of South Korea, including Seoul, its capital. Almost immediately, the U.S. committed itself to the conflict.
A former high-ranking member of the State Dept. A man named Whittaker Chambers, a former communist agent, was the editor of Time magazine and he told the committee that Hiss had passed classified State Dept. documents to him in 1937 and 1938. Hiss sued him for slander and Chambers produced microfilms of the documents called "pumpkin papers" (because he hid them in a pumpkin). Hiss was convicted of perjury and served several years in a prison.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
These two were Soviet spies sent to steal information and technology. They helped the Soviets developed the atomic bomb, and their executions drew sympathy from those tired of the "red-hunts"
Cuban Missile Crisis
An incident where Soviet missiles were placed in Cuba as a response for help. The event greatly increased tensions between the Soviets and the Americans. As a result, a hotline was established between the two nations to avoid any accidents.
was the Soviet leader that was installed as chairman of the Soviet Communist Party in March 1985. He was amicable, energetic, and most of all committed to reforming the Soviet Union. He championed two policies: glasnost and perestroika. These measures would promote "openness" and "restructuring" of the economy. These measures, however, required that the Cold War be put to an end. His cooperation with Ronald Reagan has earned the two leaders great praises.
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese revolutionary nationalist leader, he organized Vietnamese opposition to foreign occupation, first against the Japanese and then the French; became leader of North Vietnam. He led the war to unify the country in the face of increased military opposition from the United States
Lyndon B. Johnson
President of the United States who rose to tremendous power in the Senate during the New Deal. Tapped to be JFK's running mate in 1960 and was chosen largely to help solidify support for the Democratic ticket in the anti-Catholic south, he assumed the presidency after Kennedy's assassination in 1963. Was responsible for liberal programs such as the Great Society, War on Poverty, and civil rights legislation, as well as the escalation of the Vietnam war
Assisted by Thurgood Marshall in the case Brown v Board of Education. Argued for Brown. main lawyer that defended the desegregated schools case in VA for the NAACP
controversial Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1953-1969); he led the Court in far-reaching racial, social, and political rulings, including school desegregation and protecting rights of persons accused of crimes; presided over the Brown v. the Board of Education case
Davis v. County School Board
Supply Side Economics
The economic theory of "Reaganomics" that emphasized cutting taxes and government spending in order to stimulate investment, productivity, and economic growth by private enterprise.
44th president of US
George H.W. Bush
was the 42st president of the United States, previously being Ronald Reagan's vice-president. His policies and ideals derived heavily from his predecessor and were built on them. He was a well-to-do oil tycoon before devoting himself to the public. He served as a congressman, emissary to China, ambassador to the UN, director of the CIA, and vice president before becoming president.
feminist author of "The Feminie Mystique" in 1960. Her book sparked a new consciousness among suburban women and helped launch the second-wave feminist movement
first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics
on February 2, 1962, John Glenn became the first American to orbit the globe. NASA later introduced the Gemini program, whose spacecraft could carry 2 astronauts at once.
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