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Sharing the Road with Commercial Vehicles
Terms in this set (26)
What % of collisions are caused by the car and not the truck?
Collisions with CMVs usually occur when?
In Daylight and on dry pavements.
When CMVs and cars collide what % of the time is the car driver killed?
What are the limitations of a conventional truck tractor that you need to know about?
a long wheel base, making the vehicle more difficult to turn around in tight spaces. Another disadvantage is a blocked sightline to the front of the vehicle because of the extended hood.
What are the advantages to a truck tractor cab-over (tractor with no front)?
Cab-overs have an engine that is under the cab and have a shorter wheel base making them easier to turn around in tight spaces. Because cab-overs sit higher off the ground and have no extended hood, drivers have a better sightline toward the front of the vehicle.
How long is a semi-trailer?
A tractor semi-trailer is the one most widely used commercial motor vehicle. This is where a tractor pulls a trailer and is most commonly called "eighteen wheeler." With this configuration, the front of the trailer rides on the back of the tractor. The two are connected by a fifth wheel (located above the rear axle of the tractor) and the king pin which is connected to the trailer. The fifth wheel is the pivot point between the tractor and the trailer.
What are the special concerns with a Full Trailer (A tractor with 2 trailers behind it)?
This trailer is built so that no part of it's weight rests upon the vehicle pulling it. A full trailer is fully supported by it's own axles. These are also used as a second trailer in a double-trailer rig.
What are the three components of stopping distance?
Perceptual distance/time is the distance a vehicle travels while a driver is identifying, predicting and deciding to slow for a hazard. It can be affected greatly depending on visibility and the hazards itself.
Reaction time is the time it takes for a driver to execute a decision once the danger is recognized. The distance a vehicle travels while the driver reacts is called a "reaction time". Most drivers have an average reaction time of 3/4 of a second. A variety of factors can influence a driver's reaction time such as fatigue, drugs, alcohol, and age of driver.
Braking distance is the distance a vehicle travels from the time a driver begins pressing on the brake pedal until the vehicle comes to a stop.
What are the conditions that affect stopping distance?
Speed of the vehicle - Higher speeds will cause the vehicle to take longer to stop.
Vehicle condition - Tires, brakes, suspension all can affect braking distance depending on their condition.
Roadway surface - Rain, snow, leaves, gravel, dirt can cause a vehicle to have a longer braking distance.
Hills - Braking distances can be increased depending on the grade of hill.
Weight of the vehicle - Large vehicles such as CMV's can have much longer braking distances depending on the vehicle weight.
Why do CMVs have longer stopping distances?
Studies by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety have shown that at 55 miles per hour a fully loaded tractor trailer can take 49% more distance to stop than a passenger car (335 feet versus 225 feet).
What is the average stopping distance of a passenger car?
55 mph. It would take 225 feet.
What is the average stopping distance of a tractor-trailer with COOL brakes?
55 mph. Fully loaded- 335 feet
What is the average stopping distance of a tractor-trailer with HOT brakes?
Greater than 335 ft.
What does a tractor-trailer weigh in comparison with a car?
80,000 pounds for a tractor trailer
4,000 pounds for a car.
This is the biggest factor in the difference in stopping distance between a car and tractor trailer.
Speed of vehicle.
What are the hazards of following a CMV too close?
When coming to a stop behind a truck, always leave plenty of room between the vehicle and the truck. Also, move your vehicle to the left of your lane so that the driver can see you in his/her side mirror. Being too close to the rear of a CMV when it is stopped can contribute to a rollback collision. This type of collision generally occurs when a truck driver is forced to stop on an upgrade. As the driver takes his/her foot off the brake and engages the clutch, the truck may roll backwards a few feet striking the vehicle to the rear.
Another extreme hazard for passenger car drivers is striking the back of a large CMV. This type of collision is known as an "underride". Underride is generally defined as a type of collision in which a portion of a passenger vehicle slides under another vehicle. Underrides can occur between two passenger vehicles, but are more common and more dangerous between a large truck and a passenger vehicle.
Following large CMV's too closely can place a motorist in danger if debris should fall from the truck. Tires can blowout, cargo, large pieces of metal, spare tires, etc., can all fall off a large CMV causing considerable damage to any vehicle following too close. In some cases, debris falling from large CMV's has caused some drivers to the rear to become seriously injured or killed.
What are the steps for passing a large CMV?
The first step in a safe pass is to check the traffic to the front and rear.
Do not pull out if being overtaken by traffic from behind or if there is other traffic approaching.
Once a driver has decided to pass and see that the roadway is clear, do not hesitate. Declare your intention to pass and follow through, making your pass as quickly and safely as possible. Less accidents occur when there is clear, decisive action.
When moving into the passing lane, be aware that large trucks can create turbulence.
Truck drivers work hard to get up to normal highway speeds, sometimes shifting through as many as 15 gears. For this reason, and because trucks take longer to stop due to their size and weight, the drivers appreciate it if, after passing, drivers maintain their speed.
If the driver flashes his/her lights after you pass, it may be a signal that it is clear to pull back in. Do not trust this signal. Check to make sure you have cleared the front of the CMV and can now safely return to the lane.
Be sure to move back only when you can see the front of the truck in your rearview mirror. After you pass a truck, maintain your speed.
When you see a large CMV coming the other way you should?
-Yield to the right
-Do not turn left.
Where are the turbulence areas around a large CMV?
The wind blowing at the back and at the sides.
What is the most common mistake car drivers make when turning left in front of a large CMV?
Underestimating the CMV speed.
Describe what "off-tracking" is with a large CMV:
Off-tracking occurs when the trailer follows a tighter path than that of the tractor. The longer the trailer, the more the off-tracking. As a result, the tractors will swing wide left or right to prepare for the turn and to compensate for the off-tracking.
Is off tracking greater on the right or left turn?
On the right.
What are the dangers of "off-tracking?"
The tractors take a wider turn.
Why do we have staggered stop lines?
Because when the road ways are restricted, then the roads have a two lane way. By using this method, drivers can get to their destinations safely.
Studies show that 36% of car-truck collisions take place in the "No Zones" or blind spots around CMVs. Where are the "No Zones?"
Trucks have a blind spot on their sides starting behind the cab and extending behind the trailer.
Why do they build truck escape ramps?
because they are used for vehicles that are having braking problems and it is also used for stopping safely.
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