68 terms

Career Counseling Final Exam

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Frank Parsons
Person-environment congruence theory (PEC)
Granddaddy of Career Counseling
Person-environment congruence theory (PEC)
Came from the era where the expectation was to fit people into careers.
Tripartite model​ includes 1) understanding self, 2) understanding requirements of available jobs, 3) choosing one job based on ​true logic.
John Holland
Theory of Vocational Choice
Theory of Vocational Choice
Career adjustment is an extension of an individualʼs personality
Individuals express themselves through work choice and experience--and satisfaction depends on occupation being congruent with personality

RAISEC: Realistic, artistic, investigative, social, enterprising, conventional.
Six Vocational Personality Types (Holland and Thry of Vocational Choice)
RIASEC
•Realistic
•Investigative
•Artistic
•Social
•Enterprising
•Conventional
Differentiation (Holland)
How clearly an individual/environment belong to a type.
•When one predominantly resembles one type, he/she is differentiated
•Undifferentiated people have difficulty making career decision
Consistency
Similarity/dissimilarity of types

•Closer the types are to each other on the chart, the more consistent they are
Identity
Clarity and stability of a personʼs goals
REALISTIC -vocational personality type
-Physical
-Tools and machines
-hazardous
-traditionally masculine
•Practical courses
•Dislikes abstract
•Value: money, power and status
•Specific solutions and advice
•Doesn'tʼt express feelings
•Answers to the problem
INVESTIGATIVE-vocational personality type
•Solutions to problems sought
•Mathematical and scientific
•Complex and abstract
•Cautious and critical
•Independent
•Enjoys learning
•Ability to solve mathematical and scientific problems
•Prefers to work independently to solve problems
•Courses in math, physics, chemistry and biology are favorite
•Rational not emotional perspective
Artistic- vocational personality type
•Free and open, encouraging of creativity and personal expression
•No dress code, structure own time
•Personal and emotional expression
•Likes the opportunity to express self
•Originality and creativity are important
•Prefers non-structured counseling approach
•Relies on emotions in discussing career issue
Social - vocational personality type
•Flexible and an understanding of one another
•People working together
•Emphasis on human value
•Interested in helping people
•Solve problems through discussion and teamwork
•Verbal skills
•Contributing to a better world
ENTERPRISING- vocational personality type
Risks taken to achieve rewards
•Promotion and power
•Persuading and selling
Wealth is important
•Being with others
•Verbal skills
•Self-assured
•Persuading others
•May overestimate abilities
CONVENTIONAL- vocational personality type
•Office
•Organized and planned
•Mathematical material
-Able to organize/ follow directions
-Dependable
-Dependent on others for directions
-Frustrated by lack of organization and ambiguous requests
Dawis
Work Adjustment Theories
Work Adjustment Theories
-Theory focuses less on occupational choice (skills and needs) and more on experiences one has (abilities and values).

-developed specifically for people with disabilities.

-assessing abilities, values, personality and interests
3 COMPONENTS OF WORK ADJUSTMENT
Task performance
•Linked to primarily to work competencies
•Linked secondarily to work personality•

Work-role behavior
•Linked to primarily to work personality
•Linked secondarily to work habits•

Work satisfaction
•Linked to primarily to work goals
•Linked secondarily to work personality


***Work adjustment is a dynamic process that changes over the lifetime
Developmental theories
-Super Life-Span, Life-Space theory
-Gottfredsonʼs Theory of Circumscription and Compromise
GOTTFREDSON
Theory of Circumscription and Compromise
Theory of Circumscription and Compromise
How do career aspirations develop?
1. Process begins in childhood
2. Career = attempts to implement self-concept
3. Satisfaction arises from congruence of career with self-perceptions
4. Occupational stereotypes guide and limit choices - emphasis on sex roles
People develop cognitive maps based on 1) masculinity/femininity of occupation, 2) prestige of occupation, 3) fields of work. Aspirations come out of estimates of accessibility and compatibility.
Gottfredson's Developmental Stages
1. 3-5, size and power
2. 6-9, sex roles
3. 9-13, social valuation
4. 14+ choices explored
Super
Lifespan, Life-Space Theory
(14 propositions)
#Spandex in Space
This is about developmental stages (its not about single choice point) the career extends along the life span also across the life space. (rainbow diagram)
Lifespan, Life-Space Theory
(14 propositions)
1. People differ in abilities, personalities, needs, values, interests, traits, self-concepts
2. People are qualified, by virtue of these characteristics, for a number of occupations
3. Each occupation requires a certain pattern of abilities and personality traits
4. Preferences, competencies, situations and self-concepts change
5. Maxicycle: Growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, decline. "Minicycle" happens in transitions from one stage to the next or when individual is destabilized.
6. Nature of career pattern is determined by parental socioeconomic level, mental ability, education, skills, personality characteristics, career maturity, opportunities.
7. Success depends on readiness to cope with demands, aka, career maturity
8. Career maturity is a hypothetical construct
9. Development can be guided by helping abilities and interest to mature; reality testing/
development of self-concepts
10. Career development is actually a manifestation of developing and implementing
occupational self-concepts
11. Synthesis between individual and social factors and self-concepts and reality is
experience and feedback.
12. Work-life satisfaction depends on finding outlets for abilities, needs, values, etc.
13. Work-life satisfaction is proportional to implementation of self-concepts
14. Work/occupation provide a focus for personality organization
Krumboltz
Social Learning Theory
Social Learning Theory
Four factors influence career development

1. Genetic endowment and special abilities
2. Environmental conditions and events
3. Learning experiences
a. Instrumental: individual acts on environment to produce certain consequences
b. Associative: individual learns by reacting to external stimuli or by obvservation
4. Task approach skills (TAS): Skills the individual has developed (work habits, performance standards, values)
Key points for Krumboltz
Career decision is a learned skill
•Persons who claim to have made a career choice need vocational counseling too (career choice may have been made from inaccurate information)
•Success is measured by clients' demonstrated skill in decision making
•No one occupation is seen as the best for any
Krumboltz theory update
Happenstance Learning Theory
Happenstance Learning Theory
Extends theory to include:
•Unplanned events
•Acknowledges the Irrational
•The goal of life is take advantage of learning opportunities and use these to inform decision making
Planned Happenstance
•you create opportunities for unplanned events and you seize these opportunities.
•Active, risk-taking- not magical, hopeful thinking

-open-mindedness displaces indecision
Lent, Brown and Hackett (based on Bandura)
Social Cognitive Career Theory
Social Cognitive Career Theory
Focus on: development of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and impact of social identities.

1. People and environment interact in dynamic ways
2. Career interests are influenced by identities, goals, expectations, genetics, contextual
variables.
3. Self-efficacy beliefs and expectations of outcomes influence interest development.
4. Identities and environmental variables influence efficacy development.
5. Career choice and implementation are influenced by discrimination, economic variables
(supply, demand), culture.
6. Performance is the result of interactions between ability, self-efficacy, outcome
expectations, goals. People with highest ability level and strongest self-efficacy beliefs perform best.
Social-Cognitive Career Theory Central propositions
•Dynamic interaction of the person & their environment
•Behavior, self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations, and goals, + genetics determine characteristics
•SE beliefs and expectations outcomes drive interest development
•Gender, race, health, disability, and environmental variables
•Direct & Indirect influences on career development
•Performance on educational activities & occupations is a result of ability, SE beliefs, outcome expectations, and goals.
Savickas
Career Construction Theory
Career Construction Theory (Savickas)
Main ideas: identity narrative, life themes, life portrait, use of early recollections.

Five-Step Approach: Construction, Deconstruction, Reconstruction, Co-construction, Action

what does his interview style allow you to do?
-Find life mottos and themes
-Savickas borrowed theory from Alfred Adler.
-He belives when you talk about your narrative you find an early (and important) recollection of yourself.
-It helps the counselor see whats important to this person and what they are interested in vocationally as well as leisure.
Savickias's 3 A's (for listening)
listen from perspective of:
actor
agent
author
Career Information Processing Theory (posed by...)
Peterson, Sampson, & Reardo
Career Information Processing Theory
•This model emphasizes that career information counseling is a learning event
•Developers of theory outline a seven step sequence for career delivery service:
1. initial interview,
2. preliminary assessment,
3. define problem gap,
4. formulate goals,
5. develop learning plan,
6. execute plan
7. review and summarize proces
Career Information Processing Theory -Assumptions
•Career problem solving is a memory loaded task
•Motivation
•Career development involves cognitive growth and change
•Career identity depends on self knowledge
•Career maturity depends on ability to solve career problems
•Career counseling goals are to facilitate growth of information processing skills and enhance capacity for client's ability to problem solve.
Contextual Theory (authors)
Young, Valach, & Collin (2002)
Contextual Theory Overview
Goal-oriented series of behaviors, guided by the individual & their social context
•The context & the actor cannot be separation.
•Interpretations are influenced by gender and culture.
•Present Context & the Future Context
•Narratives are based on interpretations & it's the role of the career counselor to project past narratives into the future context
4 S's
Situation (what else is happening)
Self (who are you, interests, etc...)
Support (who/what is there for support)
Strategy (coping strategies/ how do you respond?)
Bloch and Richmond
Chaos Theory
Chaos Theory
(Butterfly Effect idea applied to career counseling)

-Change
-Balance
-Energy
-Community
Interest Assessment
Defined as likes or preferences / things people enjoy. Super defined expressed interests, manifest (exhibited through actions and participation), inventoried interests (based on responses about likes and dislikes), Tested interests (revealed under controlled situations). ​Test: Strong Interest Inventory, Self-Directed Search, O*NET interest profiler, etc.
Personality Assessment
Personality Assessment
Aptitude Assessment
An aptitude is a psychological factor that contributes to success. It's a capacity that has stability, unity and independence (whatever the F that means). ONET identifies nine: verbal ability, arithmetic reasoning, computation, spatial ability, form perception, clerical perception, motor coordination, finger dexterity, manual dexterity. ​Test: OO*NET Ability Profiler, ASVAB, etc.
Values Assessments
Focused on the impact of our values in defining career choice and fulfillment.
Diagnostic Inventory
​Test: Career Decision Scale, Career Beliefs Inventory, Career Thoughts Inventory, etc.
Qualitative Assessment
Do not have norms, scores or categorical outcomes.

Qualitative examples: genograms, role plays, card sorts, storytelling, coding of conversations, etc
NCDA
National Career Development Association. Provides education and credentials (there are many forms of credentials, some of which overlap with counseling/therapy some are more like coaching).
Bandura inspired which theories?
Krumboltz's Social Learning Theory & Happenstance and Career Self-Efficacy
METAPHORS
Are sticky messages
Can say more than words
Build relationships
Provide new insights and perspectives
Can be altered to show progress
Use client's, if possible
Limit the number used
Let it go, if not working
Be mindful of language / idiom issues
Lisa Flores
University of Missouri-Columbia
Six Key Tenets of Career Development, born out of the
western European experience
Universality (assumes rigid uniformity)
Individualism & Autonomy
Affluence
Myth of meritocracy
Centrality of work in people's lives
Linearity, progressiveness, and rationality of the career
development process
World view
Defined as the frame of reference that a person uses
to interpret and define events and make decisions.
Comprises a person's attitudes and values
Typically acquired through the enculturation process.
Our value orientation is highly influenced by our
cultural background and life experiences.
Acculturation
Large body of research, hot topic
"A multidimensional psychosocial
process that occurs when members of
two or more cultures come into contact
with one another"
Psychological & sociocultural adaptation
Byars-Winston
& Fouad, 2006
Multicultural Competence:
Knowledge
Skills
Awareness
Ethical Career Counseling
What is the overconfidence effect?

Ask:
What do I think I know about this person?
Where does this information come from?
What are my goals for this person?
What am I focusing on? Avoiding? Why?
Attempt to offset confirmatory bias
overconfidence effect
-when we are certain about something we are more apt to make ethical mistakes
What do we know about the future trends in regards to employment?
-Service industry going up,

-technology,

-people are living longer,

-Dr and nurse shortage,

-people are staying in the workplace longer stagnating the younger people's ability to obtain their positions.

-More "green" jobs (hopefully)
myths of career counseling
-if you take a test you will know what the right job is for you.

-the counselor is the expert and knows the right job for you

-career counseling and counseling are separate and they do not overlap

-shortcut and get rich quick schemes work
What makes a "good" resume?
■Use top 1/3 to place most important information
for employer to see- hyperlink your email, lead
w/ a summary of experience & achievements
■Make it "pop" - modern font, some color
■Mirror keywords in the posting (if applicable)
■Make every word worth its weight in gold
(keeping length appropriate)
COPING WITH TRANSITIONS (4 S's)
Assets & Liabilities
•4 Key Factors:
•The Situation
•The Self
•The Support
•The Strategies
Situation
•Trigger
•Timing
•Control
•Role Change
•Duration
•Previous Experience w/Similar Transition
•Concurrent Stress
•Assessment (Appraisal)
The self
•Personal & demographic
characteristics
•SES
•Gender
•Age & Stage of Life
•State of Health
•Ethnicity / Culture
•Psychological Resources
•Ego Development
•Outlook- Optimism & Self-Efficacy
•Commitment & Values
•Spirituality & Resiliency
Support
•History of support in tough times
•Gender differences in connection / support
•Separation from work = loss of support
•Presence of support convoy
•Range of support for range of needs- The 3 A's
Strategies
1. to modify the situation
2. to control meaning of the problem
3. to manage stress after the fact
EXISTENTIAL ISSUES IN CAREER
•Job loss ≈ death, loss of identity or status, financial security,belongingness, social connection & faith in how the world of work works
•Aloneness ≈ rejected, falling behind others, loss of connection
•Freedom / Responsibility
•Meaninglessness
YALOM'S 4 CENTRAL THEMES
APPLIED TO CAREER ISSUES
1.Death / nonbeing --Retirement, unemployment, under
employment, career transition
2. Aloneness. --Once socially-nested, not competing w/ others for jobs
3. Freedom / Responsibility --Freedom surrendered for stability afforded by work
4.Meaningless --What are the whys of what they are doing?