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Genetics Exam 1
Terms in this set (50)
the study of heredity and all its manifestations
The study of genetics is important for 2 reasons
1. It unifies the study of biology
2.It has a profound impact on human affairs
The ancient _______ philosophers provided the first formal explanations of heredity and variation
Who Speculated that a new individual is formed by a union of male and female "vapors" that are derived from various organs?
Who said "Of the semen, however, I assert that it is secreted by the whole body healthy by healthy parts, sick by sick parts. Hence as a rule, bald-headed begets bald-headed, blue-eyed beget blue-eyed."? -On the Seed
Who said "More people become able by exercise than by their natural predisposition."
Who Advocated the selection of spouses to produce children who will develop into bodily and ethically eminent personalities? -The Republic
Who was the Greek philosopher that proposed a theory of inheritance that involves the "matter" and "form"?
Who proposed that all living things originate from an egg? And introduced the Theory of Epigenesis?
What is the Theory of Epigenesis?
All parts of the embryo are potentially present in the egg
Who proposed that both sexes transmit agents of heredity? And described the process of ovulation?
Regnier de Graaf
Who observed the sperm in humans? And Speculated that the sperm provides the essential life-giving properties and the egg merely furnishes the proper environment for the embryo's nutrition and development?
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
What is the Theory of Preformationism?
The organism is contained in one of the sex cells as a fully developed (albeit miniature) homunculus
What did the Spermists believe?
that the homunculus was found in sperm
What did the Ovists believe?
that the homunculus resided in the egg
Who discredited the Theory of Preformationism?
Caspar Friedrich Wolff
Who is Carl von Linne?
-Developed a hierarchical system for classification of animals and plants
-Developed the binomial system of nomenclature
-Believed in the fixity of species: living things retain the same form from the moment they appear on earth
Who proposed the first theory of evolution?
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
The Theory of the Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics consists of two major laws:
I. Change in the environment
II. All changes of such nature are inherited
Who proposed the Theory of Organic Evolution by Natural Selection?
What is the Theory of Organic Evolution by Natural Selection?
-Variation is a characteristic of animals and plants
-Variation can be inherited
-Every group of organisms overproduces offspring
-A struggle for survival ensues
-Individuals with the most favorable variations are more likely to survive and leave offspring
-Passing on favorable variations leads to evolution of populations
What is Darwin's Pangenesis?
Cells of the developing organism are capable of producing gemmules, which are exact but minute copies of each body part
These are carried by the blood to the reproductive organs where they are assembled into gametes
With fertilization, the combined gemmules then separate out to different parts of the body during development
The two most important plant hybridists before Mendel were:
1. Joseph Kolreuter
2. Karl Gaertner
Johann Gregor Mendel
-A priest who worked with garden peas in the garden of his monastery
- proposed The Particulate Theory of Inheritance
-First to demonstrate experimentally the extension of Mendel's Laws to animals
-Coined the term Genetics
-Published Mendel's Principles of Heredity
The first two traits studied in humans were
Who coined the term Eugenics?
Encouraging the reproduction of those with beneficial traits
Discouraging the reproduction of those with undesirable traits
all of the DNA found within all of our chromosomes
a unit of heredity
the characteristics of an organism
pollen and egg are derived from different plants
pollen and egg are derived from the same plant
pure bred lines
first filial generation
offspring of cross fertilization of parents
second filial generation
offspring to self fertilization of F1 plants
third filial generation
offspring to self fertilization of F2 plants
a cross between two parents with different variants for a given character produces single-character hybrids
an alternative version of a particular gene
Law of segregation
The two copies of a gene segregate from each other during transmission from parent to offspring
Particulate theory of inheritance
the genetic determinants that govern traits are inherited as discrete units that remain unchanged as they are passed from parent to offspring
the genetic composition of an individual
an observable characteristic of an organism
the inheritance of two different characters within the same groups of individuals
Law of independent assortment
Two different genes will randomly assort their alleles during the formation of haploid cells
individuals that are heterozygous for two genes are crossed to individuals that are homozygous recessive for the same two genes
an organism with known phenotype but unknown genotype is crossed with an organism that has the recessive phenotype
True or False Offspring of a test-cross are always in equal proportions.
The defective copies of genes
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Chapter 11 - Intro to Genetics (Vocab Test 02-02)
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