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92 terms

Chapter 10-11 T/F

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F
The epimysium, endomysium, and perimysium may all be continuous with ligaments.
F
Tendons are often continuous with the endosteum of bone tissue.
T
There are more than 600 muscles in the body.
T
When a muscle contracts, the bone moved is the bone of insertion.
F
The insertion is that point of attachment that does not move when the muscle contracts.
T
Tendons are continuous with the layer of connective tissue called the epimysium.
F
The direction of the fibers composing a muscle is insignificant to its function.
F
Tipping the head back on its atlas is an example of a third-class lever.
T
A bipennate arrangement of muscle fibers produces a strong contraction.
F
Muscles classified as antagonists oppose normal movement patterns.
F
Muscles often act singly as a prime mover.
T
In a lever system, the fixed pivot around which the rod moves is called the fulcrum.
F
A set of scales and a pair of scissors are both examples of second-class levers.
T
The gluteus muscles are examples of muscles that are named as a result of location.
T
In muscle terminology, the term rectus means straight.
F
Muscles usually originate distal to the point of insertion.
T
The muscles of facial expression are unique in that at least one of their points of attachment is to the deep layers of skin over the face or neck.
F
Contraction of the internal intercostal muscles elevates the ribs.
T
The deltoid is an example of a multifunction muscle.
T
The pelvic girdle differs from the shoulder girdle in that the pelvic girdle is essentially fixed.
F
Intrinsic foot muscles are responsible for movement of the ankle and foot.
T
The Achilles tendon is common to both the gastrocnemius and soleus.
T
The soleus muscle is responsible for plantar flexion.
F
The gastrocnemius and soleus muscles act as antagonists.
F
The maintenance of body posture depends only on skeletal muscles and bones.
T
Muscles maintain posture by the property of tonicity.
F
Because tonicity is present during sleep, muscle pull does not counteract the pull of gravity.
F
The circulatory system is responsible for muscle tone.
T
Poor posture puts abnormal strain on bones and may eventually produce deformities.
T
With aging, connective tissue replaces some muscle fibers, causing decreased muscle strength.
T
The respiratory, digestive, circulatory, excretory, and endocrine systems all contribute something toward the ability of muscles to maintain posture.
T
Myofibrils contain several sarcomeres lined up end to end.
T
Another name for muscle cells is muscle fibers.
F
Muscle cells have one nucleus and one mitochondrion.
T
Muscle fibers of skeletal muscle contain several nuclei.
T
A triad consists of a T tubule sandwiched between sacs of the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
F
The characteristics that allow muscles to function as they do are: excitability, contractility, extensibility, and regulation.
F
The cell membrane of a muscle fiber is called the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
T
The protein molecule that has heads jutting out for cross-bridging is myosin.
T
A neuromuscular junction is a type of connection called a synapse.
T
The sliding filament theory is the current model of muscle contraction.
T
Muscle fibers use creatine phosphate to restore their ATP population.
T
The all-or-none principle states that muscle fibers will contract with all possible force when stimulated to threshold, or they will not contract at all.
T
Hemoglobin carries oxygen in the red blood cell and myoglobin stores oxygen in the muscle fiber.
F
Anaerobic respiration is the first choice of the muscle cell for the production of ATP.
T
T tubules are perpendicular to muscle fibers.
F
Myosin filaments attach to the Z lines.
F
At rest, troponin covers the active sites on the actin molecules.
F
A compound that mimics the action of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction would cause muscles to become flaccid.
T
Myosin filaments interact with actin filaments during muscle contraction.
T
When sarcomeres shorten, myofibrils also shorten.
T
For continued, efficient nutrient catabolism by muscle fibers, both glucose and oxygen are required
F
Slow fibers are also called white fibers because they contain a low concentration of myoglobin.
T
A motor neuron plus the muscle fibers to which it attaches is called a motor unit.
F
The more precise the muscle movement, the greater the number of muscle fibers activated by a motor neuron.
T
Muscles contract more forcefully after they have contracted a few times.
F
Smooth, sustained contractions are called treppe.
F
In psychological muscle fatigue, an individual cannot contract his or her muscles.
F
Muscles with less than normal tone are described as spastic.
F
During an isotonic contraction, the tension produced by the myosin cross-bridges cannot overcome the load placed on the muscle.
T
The degree of a muscle's strength is influenced by many factors, including its metabolic condition and number of motor units recruited.
F
A tetanic contraction is stimulated by a single stimulus.
F
Skeletal muscle organs contract on the all-ornone principle.
T
Treppe is a steep increase in the strength of contractions that can be seen in a series of twitch contractions.
T
The type of contraction exhibited by normal skeletal muscles most of the time is called tetanus.
T
The study of muscle activity is called myography.
T
The graded strength principle states that skeletal muscles contract with varying degrees of strength at different times.
T
As resistance increases, the number of motor units needed to overcome that resistance has to increase.
F
Endurance training usually results in muscle hypertrophy.
T
Convulsions are abnormal, uncoordinated tetanic contractions of varying groups of muscles.
F
Cardiac muscle is similar to skeletal muscle in that both form strong, electrically coupled junctions with other fibers.
F
Fibrillation is a tetanic contraction of cardiac muscle.
F
T tubules are found in all type of muscle tissue.
T
In visceral smooth muscle, gap junctions join individual smooth muscle fibers into large, continuous sheets.
T
A hernia is a condition in which parietal peritoneum protrudes through a weakened area in the abdominal wall.
T
Femoral hernias are more prevalent in women than in men.
F
Muscle pain may also be referred to as muscular dystrophy.
T
Duchenne's (pseudohypertrophic) muscular dystrophy is the most common type of muscular dystrophy.
T
Inguinal hernias are more prevalent in men than in women.
T
Cramps are painful, voluntary muscle spasms.
F
The thin myofilament is myosin, while the thick myofilament is actin.
T
Skeletal muscle has a great ability to stretch.
T
A triplet of tubules-a T tubule sandwiched between sacs of sarcoplasmic reticulum - is termed a triad.
F
Actin, troponin, and tropomyosin are present on the thick myofilament.
T
One I band will reside within two sarcomeres.
F
Rigor mortis is caused because of damage done to the sarcolemma after death.
T
The cell membrane of a muscle fiber is called the sarcolemma.
F
Oxygen molecules in the sarcoplasm are bound to the troponin molecule.
F
The threshold principle states that muscle fibers will contract with all possible force when stimulated to threshold, or they will not contract at all.
F
Isometric contraction is a contraction in which the tone or tension within a muscle remains the same, but the length of the muscle changes.
F
The shorter a muscle prior to contraction, the more tension it will be able to generate.
T
Muscles with less tone than normal are described as flaccid.