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4A Angiosperm Reproduction
Terms in this set (19)
What is a clone? What are some advantages and disadvantages of asexual reproduction
offspring that are genetically identical to parent; they are efficient quick which can grow rapidly in open habitat; but they have a loss of genetic diversity which affects ability to fight disease
Describe the following structures and explain how each can produce clones.
a. Corm: b. Rhizome: c. Plantlet:
a. modified stem from which clones can grow
b. underground horizontal stem from which clones can grow
c. clones that grow along margins of leaves
What is a sepal and what is its general function?
outer leaf like structures arranged in whorl around receptacle, protect developing bud, usually green and photosynthetic
Describe some ways in which petals can attract pollinators.
colors, scents, shapes
Describe each of the following components of a carpel.
a. Stigma: b. Style: c. Ovary: d. Ovule:
a. moist tip; captures pollen
b. stalk leading to ovary
c. houses one or more ovules
d. produce female gametophytes, which produce eggs
Describe each of the following components of a stamen.
a. Anther: b. Filament:
a. pollen producing structure
b. stalk that holds anther in place where pollen can catch pollenating agents
In angiosperms, what is the female gametophyte? What is the male gametophyte?
embryo sac (FG); pollen grain (MG)
Outline the production of eggs in the carpel, describing the roles of the ovule, megasporocyte, megaspore, female gametophyte (embryo sac), egg, and polar nuclei.
Outline the production of pollen in the stamen, describing the roles of the anther, microsporocyte, microspore, pollen grain, tube cell, generative cell, and sporopollenin.
What distinctive feature tends to characterize flowers in plants pollinated by wind and why?
plants have small flowers bc they don't depend on animals
Describe the pollination process in angiosperms.
pollen grain settles on stigma(as long as their the same species)-pollen grain absorbs water and germinates-pollen tube grows down style-generative nucleus divers by mitosis to form 2 sperm-pollen tube grows into ovule through micropyle-double fertilization
Describe double fertilization in angiosperms.
one sperm cell unites with egg to form zygote; one sperm cell unites with polar nuclei to form triploid nucleus produces endosperms
Which structures produce fruit in angiosperms?
ovule and ovary
What are the three primary meristems that form early in the development of an embryo in a seed?
protoderm (produces dermal tissue), ground meristem (produces ground tissue), procambium (produces vascular tissue)
What are the names of the rudimentary leaves, stem, and root that form later in the development of the embryo in the seed.
cotyledons-embryonic leaves(monocots, eudicots); hypocotyl-embryonic stem; radicle-embryonic root
What is seed dormancy? What are some ways that seed dormancy can be broken?
period during which seeds don't germinate; can be broken: period of cold abrasion by soil or in digestive tract of animal, exposure to fire or smoke, exposure to light
How do simple fruits, aggregate fruits, and multiple fruits differ in their development? What are some examples of these types of fruits?
SF: develop from single flower-may have single or multiple carpels (apricot/cherry)
AF: develop from single flower-may have multiple carpels(raspberry/blackberry)
MF: develop from multiple flowers (pineapple)
How does a perfect flower differ from an imperfect flower?
perfect: single flower has both stamen and carpels
imperfect: flower has only stamen or carpels
How does a monoecious plant differ from a dioecious plant?
mono: single plant has both stamenate and carpelate flowers (e.g., corn)
dio: stamenate and carpelate flowers are on separate plants (e.g., date palm)
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