Terms in this set (11)
Define stress and highlight key components
A substantial imbalance between environmental demand and response capability; under conditions where failure to meet demand has important consequences
Key components would be the demand and how you perceive it
What is the relationship between stress and anxiety?
Anxiety is an outcome of stress e.g. if you appraise the situation as not stressful then anxiety less likely to result and vice versa
Describe the stress process
First is the situation, second is the cognitive appraisal (of demands, resources, motivations, consequences, meaning, activation) and is influenced by individual differences then last is the response (e.g whether your anxious, nervous, aroused etc).
What problems do we encounter when trying to research stress?
- You can't directly measure stress so have to use qualitative methods (e.g. interviews) but many confounding variables
What are the two major categories of sport stress and which is most prevalent?
- Organizational - organisational more prevalent
What are the major themes representing the competitive stressors that athletes experience?
Mental and physical errors, opponents, weather, referees and injuries
Describe the key organisational stressors shown by Hanton that athletes experience
- Environmental issues
- Team issues
- Leadership issues
- Personal issues
Describe the results of Thatcher & Day (2008) showing the underlying properties of a situation which make likely to be interpreted as stressful
- Event predictability v ambiguity
- Event outcome uncertain
- Imminence and duration of event
- Event timing uncertain
- Other events in life
- Comparison to others
- Inadequate preparation
Cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage specific demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person
What are the two types of coping strategies?
Problem-focused - Take steps to prevent the situation making us stressed e.g. set training goals so you feel more prepared
Emotion-focused - Change interpretation and reaction to a stressful situation e.g. learn relaxation techniques so you can calm yourself down when the ref makes a bad call
Thinking about the competitive and organisation stressors that athletes experience, what specific coping strategies would you suggest the athletes use to cope with and reduce the stress the situation is causing?
- More training, goal setting, imagery, deep breathing/relaxation techniques
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