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PHIL 481 Media Ethics (3)
Terms in this set (129)
Vital for a good journalist; allows you to feel another's pain, not just understand WHY they are hurting like with sympathy
Developed by divinity professor Ralph Potter, method of coming to an ethical decision. Four Quadrants: 1.) Identify 2.)Values 3.) Principles 4.) Loyalty
Developed Potter Box
Greek origin, ethos. (sent, haunt, abode, homebase) Broader, set of principles that influence morals
Latin origin, mos, more. (behavior) Day-to-day behavior
1st quadrant of Potter Box. Identify the situation, players, and ethical problem.
2nd quadrant of Potter Box. Parallel morality.
3rd quadrant of Potter Box. Can use a philosopher's principles here.
4th quadrant of Potter Box. Who are you being loyal to with this decision? Readers, victims, defendants, etc.
"Mean." The truth is often found between two extremes. Similar to China's Confucius' Golden Mean. Greece, 384 BC-322 BC.
"Golden Mean." The truth is often found between two extremes. 551 BC-479 BC
Categorical Imperative. If you choose one principle to believe it it must be universal. For example, if a newspaper abides by truth that newspaper can never make a decision that keeps the truth from people. German
"Act on that maxim which will become universal law."
German, went against Kant's ideas. Said act in the interest of humans. To apply Categorical Imperative literally is absurd.
Justice (the essence of Islam), human dignity and truth are pillars of Islam. Does not extend freedom of press to moral decadence. Humans are the core of existence.
Act in the interest of the greater good. John Stuart Mill, Jeremy Bentham. 19th Century Britiain.
Veil of Ignorance--justice without social differences.
humans are made to nurture. "Nurturing/Empathy."
"other regarding care," agape.
Intense, selfless love
14th-16th Century. Society started moving away from community-mindedness and more toward individualism. This makes Clifford Christians angry.
17th-18th Cen. Society continues to move toward individualism. Painters sign names to paintings, scientists are questioning things, people are questioning established church.
North African philosopher with communitarian views. Cannot have truth without love, or human connections.
"Truth is reason, radiated by love."
"I think, therefore I am." French mathematician who puts rational, or the brain, at the center of humans instead of heart. Focus on rationality.
"Universe is lifeless machine of mathematical laws."
broke away from Catholic Church
Enlightenment thinker, said humans are all ultimately selfish.
Swiss philosopher; noble savage concept
Rosseau's concept: Break away from society, act only on impulse. Freedom is ultimate goal
"Free From." Freedom should not be ultimate goal or an end in itself, Christians says. This is why French Rev. led to Reign of Terror (people did not know how to use this freedom.)
Using freedom for common good
Rise of Existentialism
20th Century, "Ich-es" or I-it. What can it do for me? Ego, or self, if core of existence and everything else is objectified.
20th Century, "Ich-Du" or I-thou. Human relationships are vital to understand your own individuality. Connects back to St. Augustine
Important in both Communitarianism and Existentialism, but existentialism also focuses on the individual self as a core of existence.
Role in Community
Co-founder of The Catholic Worker in 1933. Communitarianism, Houses of Hospitality, The Catholic Worker Movement.
Co-founder of The Catholic Worker in 1933.
Houses of Hospitality; soup kitchens, etc.
The Catholic Worker Movement
part of Sudan, genocide, "Greatest Humanitarian Crisis of 21st Century." Media is failing to cover it effectively
Reporters used to be non-combatants in War Zone, but Civil War in Lebanon, Iraq and after Vietnam reporters began to be targeted
1975-1990. Reporters began to be killed and targeted
Civil War in Lebanon
passed by states to protect journalists who do not reveal sources. MS does not have one
Washington Post reporter who created fictional story about Jimmy, an 8-year-old heroin addict. Won Pulitzer.
Scooter Libby revealed info out of spite; Judith Miller still protected his identity
???Look up in Book
If journalists fail, general public could become tired of reading about an issue.
Jewish homeland, Israel
Western journalists seen as biased already, hard to get certain ethnic groups to talk to them
Covering the Middle East (Gaza Strip): Problem
Israeli side more accessible than Arab side, so presents a bias
Owned by Gannette; Chicuita
reporter for Cincinnati Inquirer, taped 3,000 Chiquita calls
Editor of Cincinnati Inquirer
CEO of Chiquita
Chiquita attorney, Gallagher's key source. Gets him access to voicemails.
Similar to Communitariansim; journalists' responsibility to better society
seeds of feminist movement, Civil Rights sowed. Journalism questioned (objectivity had become "stand back and hold a microphone.")
begins with printing press; sell more papers if you don't offend anyone. Eventually think objectivity needs to be redefined because it gives too much authority to powerful.
owner, Time Magazine. Commissioned the Hutchins report, made up of philosphers, etc. to study journalism.
Principle of the University of Chicago; headed Hutchins Commission in 1947
1947, commissioned by Henry Luce, found that journalism didn't reach people, needed to be an activist help better society, not objective.
1956-Book by Theodore Peterson, Wilbur Schramm and Frederick Seibert. Found four prevailing theories of the press. 1.)liberatarian 2. communist 3. Authoritarian 4. Social Responsibilty
Four Theories of the Press
one of the authors of "Four Theories of the Press."
one of the authors of "Four Theories of the Press."
one of the authors of "Four Theories of the Press."
"Four Theories of the Press." Capitalist, freedom of the press, free from government restraint
"Four Theories of the Press." Press is wing of government, propoganda, used to further government's cause
"Four Theories of the Press." Dictator or government controls press, but press is individually owned.
written by Peterson. Said journalists should work to help people, not so much be subjective. Ressurected Hutchins Report
Commission called to study them found press wasn't effectively covering them. White people trying to see Black person's world. Called on news organizations to diversify
applied to U. of Michigan and was turned down based on a points system that awarded more points to blacks. Won because system was blind, penalized unfairly.
applied to U. of Michigan Law School and turned down because she was white. Didn't have a points system, just trying to diversify. Grutter lost.
Problem journalists covering cases like Gratz and Grutter's. Can easily be manipulated by language you don't understand and create accidental bias in story
Liberal jurists, pro-life, pro-choice, quota, social engineering, illegitimate child
Examples of Loaded Words
Christians says too powerful a tool to be in the hands of a few. Some problems with it: Accessiblity, Privacy, Survellience, commercialism
American soccer player, 1999 World Cup, Veil of Ignorance should have been used to cover this
involved in "10 weeks at Wounded Knee" in 1972. Protest sparked by murder.
American Indian Movement leader
journalists made it worse, failed to stick with the story and report it
journalist, media critic, wrote "In Fact." Got information that he didn't publish he feels would have ruined Hitler's platform for rising to power
1.) Intrusion on seclusion or privacy; 2.) Public disclosure of private affairs; 3.) Appropriation of likeness or name for commercial gain 4.) Presenting and individual in a false light
Types of privacy lawsuits
1.) Laws that seek to protect private individuals do not extend to public figures; 2.) Media decides what is newsworthy; 3.)Self and Society
Why we need privacy ethics
1.) Promote decency and basic fairness; 2.)Redeeming social value; 3.)Human dignity should not be exploited
Principles of Privacy Ethics
Media failed to ask hard questions and acted as spokesperson for government instead of focusing on how the patriot act impeded foreign exchange students and privacy
Prostitute on Page 12; Missoula, Montana. The Missoulian
Editor, The Missoulian
dead body photographer for Bakersfield Californian
Managing Editor of Californian who decided to run the photo
Media allowed him to use them as P.R. campaign, basically.
Couple sponsored by Wal-Mart to travel across country and keep a Web site about how good Wal-Mart is. Didn't disclose Wal-Mart was sponsoring them, or that Laura was related to Wal-Mart's P.R. firm's attorney.
Laura and Jim
Nixon-Should it have been factual or could Stone take artistic liberty? Stone argues both.
example of real event not portrayed correctly
Atlanta Child Murders, portrayed in docudrama that is another example of a real event with fictional parts
Fox's reality show. "Cultural emptiness," "false picture of humanity," no community spirit
Is Holocaust too serious an incident to make a comedic movie about?
Life is Beautiful
If you use fictional characters created by another author, they should at least resemble those characters
League of Extraordinary Gentlemen
embodies inner angst but offers no solutions...Nihilism-belief in nothing
Eminem (belief in nothing)
ran "Chiquita's Children"
In These Times
chemical used by banana companies in Nicaragua
Repeated use of anonymous, un-checkable sources
Committee to Re-Elect the President (Nixon) planted wiretaps, Woodward and Bernstein find FL bank account
Mark Felt, second in command at FBI (FBI didn't like Nixon)
Woodward book, includes crying and praying scene with Nixon and Sec. of State Henry Kissinger
"The Final Days"
Supreme Court Justice who Woodward reveiled as a source for "The Breathern" after Stewart died
Woodward wrote about this in "Veil." Scandal includes Raegan: Use funds from selling enemy country Iran military weapons to send Contra to overthrow socialist government in Nicaragua
Woodward book about Iran-Contra Scandal. Has controversial interview with CIA Head William Casey
CIA head whom Woodward claims to have confirmed involvement in the Iran Contra Scandal even though Casey couldn't talk (his widow says) and was guarded heavily
I.F. Stone Reader, focused on documents, denied entry to Washington Press Corps.
1.) Use of documents; 2.)Be on the scene; 3.) Use of History; 4.)Be Independant
I.F. Stone's Reporting Methods
1.) Conformist; 2.) Indifferent about news; 3.) News organizations owned by business people, not journalists
I.F. Stone's Reasons Why Americans are Ill-Informed
"Afflict the Comfortable, Comfort the Afflicted."
Muckracker for the CL, Helped with Bryan De La Beckwith Conviction by publishing leaked copies of Mississippi Sovreignty Commissions files, also Neshoba County Civil Rights
Editor of Mladina, satirical magazine that covered transition out of communism in Slovenia.
Minister of Police in Communist Slovania, feared by man, Bernard Nezmah does count down until he retires and he does. Satirycal pictures.
Legendary minor Nezmah compares Dolanc too
section of Mladina that Nezmah uses to call out Rupel, leads to Slovenian Parliament passing laws to better protect satryists and op-eds
Mayor, sues and wins libel case over Nezmah
support Nezmah when he is about to be jailed for libel; keep him from jail by telling Slovenia they will be denied access to NATO and European Unions. Leads to Slovenian Parliament passing new law to protect satyrists and op-eds
European Union of Journalists
The White Rose, Nazi Germany, killed, U. of Munich
Hans and Sophie Scholl
students (headed by Hans and Sophie Scholl) and professor tell truth about Hitler when prof. news organizations don't
The White Rose Movement
1.) Led by Young people, which Hitler was trying to win over, 2.)based in Munich, where Nazi movement began and prominent Nazi was pres. 3.) White Rose could be linked to artisty area of Munich, Schwabing that Hitler hated
Reasons Hitler hated White Rose Movement
Artist area of Munich, uprising after WWI that Hitler had to put down. B. Traven/Ret Marut lived there
Ret Marut--wrote book about Mexican uprising that White Rose Movement may have been named after
"He who has a 'why' to live can bear almost any 'how'"
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