protecting social welfare, promoting moral improvement, creating economic reform, fostering efficiency
became an advocate for improving the lives of women & children; appointed chief inspector of factories; helped win passage of the IL Factory Act
Illinois Factory Act
prohibited child labor & limited women's working hours
banning of alcoholic beverages; program to promote moral improvement
Women's Christian Temperance Union
fought for prohibition
journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business & public life in mass circulation magazines; refers to John Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress"
the application of scientific principles to increase efficiency in the workplace
Robert M. LaFollette
progressive Republican leader; led WI to regulating big business; major target was railroad industry; taxed RR property at the same rate as other business property; set up a commission to regulate rates; forbade railroads to issue free passes to state officials
Australian ballot; printed by the gov; created because of counterfeiting ballots, stuffing ballot boxes, & other illegal practices
enables citizens to propose laws
allowed citizens to vote for or against laws already passed by state legislatures
let citizens vote to remove corrupt politicians from office
provided for the direct election of Senators by the voters of each state
prohibited the transportation across state lines of goods produced with child labor
characteristics of most progressive reformers...
wanted reform; middle class, urban, college educated people; sympathetic with the down-trodden; few progressives lived among them; wanted reform but looked over blacks
goals of reformers
put an end to political corruption; pass laws to improve working conditions and against child labor; help problems of spoiled food & slum housing: regulate monopolies
muckraker; wrote about rockefeller & standard oil
muckraker: focused on the human conditions in Chicago stockyards; the jungle
What was the purpose of the jungle?
to reveal the breaking of human hearts by a system that exploits the labor of men & women for provits
what did the jungle reveal/do?
revealed the conditions of the meatpacking industry; provoked a public outcry & the Meat Inspection Act was passed
What are examples of current day muckraking?
TV reports, magazine/newspaper articles, documentary/feature films, internet
How did investigative journalism get the name "muckraking"?
American journalists tried to improve society by exposing political corruption, health hazards, & other social problems; may have come from Roosevelt
muckraker who wrote about child poverty
What impact did publication of The Jungle have on American society?
Roosevelt passed the Meat Inspection Act; revealed the conditions of the meatpacking industry
Why did women receive less pay that men for doing the same job?
It was assumed that most workingwomen were single & support only themselves, but working men were assumed to be supporting a family
What reform issues did women concentrate on?
the right to vote, food/drug laws, educational improvement, prohibition, housing, etc.
National Association of Colored Women
worked to improve the moral education of blacks; started nurseries, reading rooms, & kindergartens
What were the 3 strategies used by women to gain the right to vote?
1. Worked to gain the right to vote in state legislature 2. pushed court cases based on the 14th Amendment 3. fought for a constitutional amendment to grant women the right to vote
2 positions Roosevelt held before VP
NY State Assembly; NYC police commissioner; assistant secretary of Navy; governor of NY
How did TR become President?
He was urged to run as McKinley's VP by state political bosses; they thought he was impossible to control; McKinley died 6 months into presidency
TR's program of progressive reforms designed to protect the common people against big business
Northern Securities Company
had a monopoly over the NW railroads; company was dissolved by order of the Supreme Court; gave Sherman Anti-Trust Act teeth & TR earned a rep as a trust-buster
1902 Coal Strike
140,000 miners went on strike; demanded a raise, 9-hour workday, & the right to organize a union; mine operators refused to bargain
What precedent was set by the Coal Strike?
if a strike threatened public welfare, the US gov would step in
made it illegal for RR officials to give rebates & RRs couldn't change set rates w/o notifying the public
gave more power to the ICC; result was a broad reduction in RR rates; set a max rate for RR fares
Pure Food & Drug Act
law enacted to halt the sale of contaminated foods & drugs; ensure truth in labeling
persuaded TR to set aside 148 mil acres of the wilderness; convinced him to think about conservation; created nat'l park system; felt conservation meant complete preservation of wilderness
appointed by TR to be head of US Forestry Service; felt some area should be preserved & others would be developed for the common good
Forest Homestead Act
addressed problems of deforestation by balancing development w/ conservation; forests could be used for recreation to provide lumber; opened certain areas for ag uses
set the precedent that the fed. gov't would manage the water resources in the West
explain the TR & bear political cartoon...
TR is shooting the "bad trust" bear [monopolies]; while killing the monopolies, he captured the bear labeled "good trusts" because he's keeping it from going bad
ida b. wells
teacher & civil/women's rights activists; traveled around nation helping to form women's clubs; fought against lynching as a writer/speaker; focused on education, health & sanitation
Booker T. Washington
invited to white house; worked w/ middle & upper-class whites; founded Tuskegee Institute; promoted ed. opportunities; believed white support was needed to get ahead
George Washington Carver
parents were slaves; agricultural scientist; knew cotton robbed soil of its richness; potatoes/sweet potatoes enriched soil; diversified southern agriculture
renewed demands for immediate social/economic equality for blacks; wrote about opposition to Washington's position
Who ran for President in 1912 & for which party?
Eugene V. Debs: socialists; Woodrow Wilson: democrats; TR: bull moose; William Howard Taft: republicans
Which 2 candidates were considered Progressives?
Wilson & TR [democrats & bull moose]
TR/bull moose platform; regulation of corporatizations, control trusts; eliminate child labor; create min wage; achieve women's suffrage
wilsom/democratic platform; break up trusts; lower tariffs; reform banking system; strengthen sherman anti-trust act; not really for the people
Explain the elephant & moose cartoon...
represents Roosevelt & Taft; TR kept Taft from winning & prevented Republicans from winning
Why was the Federal Reserve System created?
during times of financial panic, bank runs occur; can cause a widespread economic recession; when one bank fails, consumers go to their banks & demand $
Goals of the Federal Reserve System...
1. providing emergency cash reserves to meet panic withdrawals would help to establish confidence in the banking system & more stability in the economy; 2. improve efficiency of national payment[monetary] system