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4 goals of progressivism

protecting social welfare, promoting moral improvement, creating economic reform, fostering efficiency

Florence Kelley

became an advocate for improving the lives of women & children; appointed chief inspector of factories; helped win passage of the IL Factory Act

Illinois Factory Act

prohibited child labor & limited women's working hours


banning of alcoholic beverages; program to promote moral improvement

Women's Christian Temperance Union

fought for prohibition


journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business & public life in mass circulation magazines; refers to John Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress"

scientific management

the application of scientific principles to increase efficiency in the workplace

Robert M. LaFollette

progressive Republican leader; led WI to regulating big business; major target was railroad industry; taxed RR property at the same rate as other business property; set up a commission to regulate rates; forbade railroads to issue free passes to state officials

secret ballot

Australian ballot; printed by the gov; created because of counterfeiting ballots, stuffing ballot boxes, & other illegal practices


enables citizens to propose laws


allowed citizens to vote for or against laws already passed by state legislatures


let citizens vote to remove corrupt politicians from office

17th amendment

provided for the direct election of Senators by the voters of each state

Keating-Owen Act

prohibited the transportation across state lines of goods produced with child labor

characteristics of most progressive reformers...

wanted reform; middle class, urban, college educated people; sympathetic with the down-trodden; few progressives lived among them; wanted reform but looked over blacks

goals of reformers

put an end to political corruption; pass laws to improve working conditions and against child labor; help problems of spoiled food & slum housing: regulate monopolies

ida tarbell

muckraker; wrote about rockefeller & standard oil

upton sinclair

muckraker: focused on the human conditions in Chicago stockyards; the jungle

What was the purpose of the jungle?

to reveal the breaking of human hearts by a system that exploits the labor of men & women for provits

what did the jungle reveal/do?

revealed the conditions of the meatpacking industry; provoked a public outcry & the Meat Inspection Act was passed

What are examples of current day muckraking?

TV reports, magazine/newspaper articles, documentary/feature films, internet

How did investigative journalism get the name "muckraking"?

American journalists tried to improve society by exposing political corruption, health hazards, & other social problems; may have come from Roosevelt

John Spargo

muckraker who wrote about child poverty

What impact did publication of The Jungle have on American society?

Roosevelt passed the Meat Inspection Act; revealed the conditions of the meatpacking industry

Why did women receive less pay that men for doing the same job?

It was assumed that most workingwomen were single & support only themselves, but working men were assumed to be supporting a family

What reform issues did women concentrate on?

the right to vote, food/drug laws, educational improvement, prohibition, housing, etc.

National Association of Colored Women

worked to improve the moral education of blacks; started nurseries, reading rooms, & kindergartens

What were the 3 strategies used by women to gain the right to vote?

1. Worked to gain the right to vote in state legislature 2. pushed court cases based on the 14th Amendment 3. fought for a constitutional amendment to grant women the right to vote

2 positions Roosevelt held before VP

NY State Assembly; NYC police commissioner; assistant secretary of Navy; governor of NY

How did TR become President?

He was urged to run as McKinley's VP by state political bosses; they thought he was impossible to control; McKinley died 6 months into presidency

square deal

TR's program of progressive reforms designed to protect the common people against big business

Northern Securities Company

had a monopoly over the NW railroads; company was dissolved by order of the Supreme Court; gave Sherman Anti-Trust Act teeth & TR earned a rep as a trust-buster

1902 Coal Strike

140,000 miners went on strike; demanded a raise, 9-hour workday, & the right to organize a union; mine operators refused to bargain

What precedent was set by the Coal Strike?

if a strike threatened public welfare, the US gov would step in

Elkins Act

made it illegal for RR officials to give rebates & RRs couldn't change set rates w/o notifying the public

Hepburn Act

gave more power to the ICC; result was a broad reduction in RR rates; set a max rate for RR fares

Pure Food & Drug Act

law enacted to halt the sale of contaminated foods & drugs; ensure truth in labeling

John Muir

persuaded TR to set aside 148 mil acres of the wilderness; convinced him to think about conservation; created nat'l park system; felt conservation meant complete preservation of wilderness

gifford pinchot

appointed by TR to be head of US Forestry Service; felt some area should be preserved & others would be developed for the common good

Forest Homestead Act

addressed problems of deforestation by balancing development w/ conservation; forests could be used for recreation to provide lumber; opened certain areas for ag uses

Newlands Act

set the precedent that the fed. gov't would manage the water resources in the West

explain the TR & bear political cartoon...

TR is shooting the "bad trust" bear [monopolies]; while killing the monopolies, he captured the bear labeled "good trusts" because he's keeping it from going bad

ida b. wells

teacher & civil/women's rights activists; traveled around nation helping to form women's clubs; fought against lynching as a writer/speaker; focused on education, health & sanitation

Booker T. Washington

invited to white house; worked w/ middle & upper-class whites; founded Tuskegee Institute; promoted ed. opportunities; believed white support was needed to get ahead

George Washington Carver

parents were slaves; agricultural scientist; knew cotton robbed soil of its richness; potatoes/sweet potatoes enriched soil; diversified southern agriculture

WEB DuBois

renewed demands for immediate social/economic equality for blacks; wrote about opposition to Washington's position

Who ran for President in 1912 & for which party?

Eugene V. Debs: socialists; Woodrow Wilson: democrats; TR: bull moose; William Howard Taft: republicans

Which 2 candidates were considered Progressives?

Wilson & TR [democrats & bull moose]

new nationalism

TR/bull moose platform; regulation of corporatizations, control trusts; eliminate child labor; create min wage; achieve women's suffrage

new freedom

wilsom/democratic platform; break up trusts; lower tariffs; reform banking system; strengthen sherman anti-trust act; not really for the people

Explain the elephant & moose cartoon...

represents Roosevelt & Taft; TR kept Taft from winning & prevented Republicans from winning

Why was the Federal Reserve System created?

during times of financial panic, bank runs occur; can cause a widespread economic recession; when one bank fails, consumers go to their banks & demand $

Goals of the Federal Reserve System...

1. providing emergency cash reserves to meet panic withdrawals would help to establish confidence in the banking system & more stability in the economy; 2. improve efficiency of national payment[monetary] system

What amendment passed Federal Income Tax?

16th Amendment

What does the 19th Amendment do?

gives women the right to vote

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