149 terms

Drama

Drama and Theater
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Dramatic Irony
when the audience knows what is occurring in the story but the characters do not
theatrum mundi
the world as theater. What we see on stage is a reflection of the world as it was conceived at the time the play was written. -> display of rules, regulationa, limits...
The Globe Theater
Shakespeare's Theater (circular shape, open yard)
Drama
A story written to be performed by actors.
Designed with an audience in mind.
Drama is shaped by cultural,social, political conditions and theatrical conventions of the time.
Closet Drama
A play that is written to be read rather than performed onstage.
Difference between dramatic, narrative and lyrical texts
Direct speech (Dialogue) dominates drama
lack of narrator
Dionysia
first dramatic plays as choric songs for God of music and dance
Thespis
first actor to speak words instead of singing 535 BC
Meta theatrical element
something about the drama - disruption of the 4th wall - destroys illusion of absolute nature - refers to itself
Genre
a major category or type of literature
is not stable: generic conventions are not carved in stone but based on sociocultural literary, social consensus and subject to historical change
Tragedy
A serious form of drama dealing with the downfall of a heroic or noble character.
Comedy
deals with life in a light, humorous way, often poking fun at people's mistakes
emerged after tragedy
leads protagonist to happiness
Phobos
Fear
Eleos
Pity
Catharsis
An extremely emotional experience
Mimesis
imitation, in the sense of making a representation, an image, or a model
Domestic Tragedy
18th century rise of middle class, more about ordinary men and women - promotes values of beourgoise
What makes drama?
-no level of meditation
-meant to be performed
-drama has an absolute quality
-Synchrony of production and reception
multi-medial nature of drama
absolute nature
...
Malapropism
using words in the wrong way
Old Comedy
political, plays of Greek playwrights
New Comedy
love stories, romantic comedies
Comedy of humours
End of 16th century, 4 humours / temparaments
Comedy of Manner
17th century, makes fun of behaviour of particular social classes
Comedy Today
Farce and satiric comedy and dark comedy are popular
Tragicomedy
The dramatic genre of the 20th century, comedy with tragic elements
Melodrama
Music and drama, set in domestic context
Audience
without audience theater cannot exist and perfomance will not be effective, needs reaction
Cybernetic machine
audience communicates with actors over applause, reaction
Collective reception:
watching play is a social event, laughter by one person can lead to everyone laughing
Conflict and crisis
often caused by main character (4 types)
1. conflict between characters
2. Opposition between man and nature
3. Individual and Society
4. Internal psychological conflict
Theatrical communication
Theater is condition by audience and is dependent on spectators presence, reaction and criticism
Meta theater
Play which comment on theater, and conventions.
Want to draw attention to their status as fictional constructs (illusion and reality)
Postmodern theater space
many different faces e.g. environmental theater
Performance theater
involves an actor, a spectator and a space no script
Farce
New Drama seriousness, absolute comedy, misunderstandings, strange and laughable situations
Circulation of knowledge
theater offers a litte world image of world
Dissermination of knowledge
Why
Flexibility
stage can be created anywhere
Timelessmess and immediacy
action is happening here and now and needs immediate response
Emotional involvement
engagement of audience
Intercultural dialogue
bridging gap between different national and temporal cultural tradition
Cognitive Function
If we see something performed and visualized it can be remembered more easily than verbally delivered information
Early modern era
conflict between man and cosmic order
Medieval drama
biblical texts, promotion of pious life
Restoration drama
witty comedies
Bourgeoisie
moral instruction
Universal and persistent themes
meaning often implicit, ready to make them explicit
-Love and friendship, relation of individual and society, Ethnicity and race
Political drama
all drama is to some degree political because of presentation of their norms and values of the time
Intertextuality
Drama always often exchanges with other texts
Semiotics of drama
theory of signs, assumption that we are often unconsciously reading as we are a part of complex sing systems
Theatrical sign system
text and multilayered texture of verbal, visual and auditory signs
Actor as sign
icon, resembles humankind and produces symbols on stage
Typology of theater codes:
Actor: acoustic voice, visual costume
Stage: acoustic music, visual props
Paralinguistic signs
signs which accompany articulation of words
Eos
can change meaning (timbre, pitch)
Me Kinetic signs
movement body language
Res Pioxemic signs
movement in space
Primary text
words spoken on stage
Secondary text
all text segments which are not spoken
Stage Direction
1st info of drama establishes mood and atmosphere for action and contributes to constitution of meaning in a play
Shakespeare stage direction
implicit stage direction which derive from primary text
Implicit gestures/ Deixis
Actor refers to objects figure on stage
Non verbal communication
providing info on emotional state, insights into relations of characters and supports interaction between actors and audience (facial feedback)
Basic Communication model
encoded and decoed messages are never identical, communication is collaborate
Linguistic codes
language is the most fundamental, regional dialects, older forms and English language
Paralinguistic codes
tone of voice, speed, words do not travel alone
Perceptual code
element which have direct impact on audiences senses
Socio-cultural codes
interpretation of signs depends on cultural context
theatrical codes
shared understanding of theater
Intratextual level of communication
communication of characters within the play (actor as character adresses character and audience)
Extratectual level of communication
includes interaction between playwright, actors and audience
Role of playwright
some background knowledge helps but dont think about Author's intention. intentional fallacy
Stage directors
not introduced until 18th century
Shakespeare
playwright, actor and manager combined, 16th century
Communication between actors and audience
collaborative because audience can signal or approve, disapprove verbally
Intratextual communication
main medium of communication is dialogue, when addressing a character in the play, actors also address audience, exceeding internal level of communication
Discrepant Awareness
superior degree of information differs between characters on stage and the audience
Exposition
Introductory information necessary for the understanding of the intial events (can also be later)
Dramatic introduction
a teaser, serves to attract attention
Prologue
common form of exposition, presented in isolated introductory passage, introduces theme, setting and characters
Congruent awareness
characters and audience have identical information
Narrative vs. drama
telling a story vs. presenting speech and action
Mimetic narrativity
representation of temporal or causal sequence of events, does not presuppose presence of speaker
Diegetic narrativity
verbal transmission of narrative content (told by character serving as narrator)
closed perspective structures
characters at the end have a unitary view of the world, value systems are clear (good rewarded, bad punished)
open perspective structure
individual character perspectives remain divergent until the end (Equus)
Intratextual narrator
character who tells stories through speech and dialogues
monodramatic narrator
unfold story in monologue
generative narrator
has superior knowledge, generates dramatic story world
Epic theater
creates and maintains distance to the world of drama, gives a critical perspective on action displayed on stage, inclusion of narrative elements, often breaks fourth wall and leaves audience to think
Character perspective
a character subjective limited view of reality
Perspective structure
whole range of character perspective and their relations to teach to each other
Paradigmatic - selective
Syntagmatic - combination
Hierarchy of perspectives
established through the amount of speech ascribed to a character, social status and degree of interaction with audience
Language in drama
is a medium but also a message, important to look at what and how something is said
Dialect
regional speech patterns
Sociolect
language within a specific social class
Silence
can never be silence in theater, due to body language , liable to misinterpretation
Alienation effect (in relation to epic theater)
prevents audience from identifying with characters and estranges them from play, shows greater insight
dialogue
a conversation between characters set off by quotation marks
Aside
A line spoken by an actor to the audience but not intended for others on the stage
Monologue
a long speech spoken by a character to himself, another character, or to the audience
Soliloquy
character alone on stage and not aware of listeners, high degree of subjectivity
Verse drama
blank verse Elizabethan or jacobean age, aimbic pentameter
Dramatis personae
list of characters in a play
Charcater configuration
sequential presence of differnet characters on stage
character conception
development on stage
static charcaters
unchanged
dynamic
is a development
open character conception
relevant info is missing so a character's action cannot be explained
closed character conception
character is clearly defined
Stock characters
steretypes focus on one perspective of human behaviour
Names of characters
often characterising
Figural characters
primary text
authorial characterisation
conveyed in secondary text
explicit
traits of characters are stated out right
implicit
behaviour is presented
Dramatic Action
Aristotle say that drama si the representation of action -> not applicable for drama in general
Action
denotes what the actors actually do and what is happening ina particulary play , compromises a phsysical and psychological dimension
Brechtian approch
product of social and political influences which shape human behavior
Story
chronologal order of events
Plot
causally and logically linked events
event
smallest unit of a plot
Mythos
compromises both plot and story and embraces sequential and consequential order of events .> artistotlen term for dramatic action
Epic Theater
NO PLOT, principle of montage, some kind of closer, no principle of causation
Freatyags pyramid
not applicable to Epic drama, Shakespeeare to complex
Deus ex machina
resolves everything at the end, something not realistic
open drama
epic theater . disturbs linear progression of action, no exposition and resolution, principle of montage
closed drama
each scene progresses from the previous one action is linear, no gaps, smalles variety of characters and themes, conflicts can be resolved
Episodes
2nd order level mimesis, level is embedded in main/subplot
dreams and play within a play
dreams
usually once removed from main fictitius level of of drama can be presented on the same level -> MSND
play within a play
theatrical event is doubled, introduces important background into play, serves as methathetrical devies
point of attack
play properly starts
Epilogues
closing speech
Place and time open
time and place can change in cause of action -> Shakespeare
Clodes Space and time
not allow for multilacety Aristotles
Spatial deixis
here and there
temporal deixs
now and than
Performance time
lenght of pla<
Fictinoal time
covers years
Ellipsis
a period of time is ommited
Theater Space
playwrights often wrote their drama for a specific space
theatrical space
imagined space projected in spectatirs mind, architectual conditions, stage space, dramatic space of representation
Elizabethan theater
indoor, multi levelled, only few stage props,
Heterotopia
space of otherness, exluded from society socio cultural environment
modern theater
picture from stage, realistic stage decoration, 3 dimensional scenery, use of lavish props
Postmodern theater
environmental theater many different props
Metatheater
Play which comment on theater, and dramatic conventions
Epic metadrama
breaking of 4th wall by presence of narrator