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Chp 16 ID's
Terms in this set (32)
-emerged in 1860s and 1870s
-Sought a ban on employing Chinese
-Organized boycotts of products made with Chinese labor
-Resulted from white workers resentment of Chinese laborers accepting low wages
bozeman trail and red cloud
a trail to the Montana goldfields; Sioux war party killed during the construction and left no survivors, also mutilating the corpses; the Treaty of Fort Laramie was signed in 1868 to abandon this trail and the "Great Sioux reservation" was guaranteed to the Sioux tribes
leader of the Oglala who resisted the development of a trail through Wyoming and Montana by the United States government (1822-1909)
bureau of indian affairs
The federal government established this in 1836 to be in charge of the relocated Indians. Corruption among agents was common, however. This flawed federal aid program furthered the Indians' resentment toward white society and created an atmosphere of conflict.
is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the US Department of the Interior. It is responsible for the administration and management of 55,700,000 acres of land held in trust by the United States for Native Americans in the United States, Native American Tribes and Alaska Natives.
Designed to correct the defects in the General allotment, under which the land in the indian reservation was to be broken up and distributed.
Revolved around organizations that functioned as something like benevolent societies and filled many of the roles that political machines often served in immigrant communities in eastern cities
chinese exclusion act
banned Chinese immigration for 10 yrs and barred Chinese already in country from becoming naturalized citizens. extended indefinitely
chinese immigration trends
- came in through California
- political freedom in America --> Qing Dynasty
- worked in: railroads, laundromats, etc.
- most jobs were short term with low wages
- "anti-union" --> wanted to work so they could bring family over
As time went on, farmers began to depend on large, expensive machinery, and stores for goods. Many small farms were unable to afford the equipment, thus causing them to be driven out of business.
A mine that produced over $340 million in gold and silver by 1890.
-New reservations policy
-In 1851, the government assigned all the tribes their own defined reservations, confirmed by individual treaties (often illegitimately negotiated)
-Far more beneficial to whites than to the tribes
--Divided the tribes from one another and made them easier to control
--Allowed the government to force tribes into scattered locations and to take over the most desirable lands for white settlement
Native American war leader of the Oglala Lakota. He took up arms against the U.S. Federal government to fight against encroachments on the territories and way of life of the Lakota people, including leading a war party at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in June 1876.
dawes severalty act
forced civilization views of the reformers, wiped tribal ownership of land, and oppressed the Indians; instead, gave 160 free acres to individual Indian family heads; if they behaved how the whites wanted them to (basically farm the land) then they would get a full title to their holdings and citizenship in 25 years; land not given to Indians was sold to railroads and white settlers with money going towards the federal government in order to create schools to education and "civilize" Native Americas
decimation of the buffalo
-Relentlessly slaughtered by the whites
-After the civil war, professional and amateur hunters (including casual visitors shooting from passing trains) swarmed over the plains slaughtering the bison
-Some Native American tribes also began killing large numbers of buffalo to sell in a booming market
-In 1865 there had been at least 15 million buffalo; a decade later, fewer than a thousand survived
--By destroying the buffalo herds, whites were destroying the Indians' source of food and supplies and their ability to resist white advance
easter sioux uprising (little crow)
During the civil war, he led the eastern Sioux in Minnesota. Indians who were cramped on a small reservation and exploited by corrupt white agents. He led them in a rebellion that killed more than 700 whites before being subdued by a force of regulars and militiamen. Thirty-eight of the Indians were hanged, and the tribe was exiled to the Dakotas.
Income, railroads, credit, prices, advent of commercial farming.
flight of the nez perce (chief joseph)
one band of Nez Perce' Indians in northeastern Oregon were goaded into daring flight in 1877, when U.S. authorities tried to herd them onto a reservation. Chief Joseph finally surrendered his breakaway band of some seven hundred Indians after a tortuous, seventeen-hundred mile, three month trek across the Continental Divide towards Canada. There Joseph hoped to rendezvous with Sitting Bull, who had taken refuge north of the border after the Battle of Little Bighorn (Custer's Last Stand). Betrayed into believing they would be returned to their ancestral lands in Idaho, the Nez Perce's instead were sent to a dusty reservation in Kansas, where 40% of them perished from disease
frederick jackson tuner/ turner thesis
An historian who wrote an influential essay, "The Significance of the Frontier in American History." 1893. He argued that 300 years of frontier experience had played a fundamental role in shaping the unique character of American Society. His thesis stated that the frontier experience had promoted a habit of independence and individualism.
-Claimed that the experience of westward expansion had stimulated individualism, nationalism, and democracy; kept opportunities for advancement alive; made Americans the distinctive people that they were
Native American leader of the Chiricahua Apache who fought against Mexico and the United States for their expansion into Apache tribal lands for several decades during the Apache Wars.
(several culturally related groups of Native Americans in the United States originally from the Southwest United States.)
helen hunt jackson
American writer who became an activist on behalf of improved treatment of Native Americans by the U.S. government.
Act that allowed a settler to acquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years, improving it, and paying a nominal fee of about $30 - instead of public land being sold primarily for revenue, it was now being given away to encourage a rapid filling of empty spaces and to provide a stimulus to the family farm, turned out to be a cruel hoax because the land given to the settlers usually had terrible soil and the weather included no precipitation, many farms were repo'd or failed until "dry farming" took root on the plains , then wheat, then massive irrigation projects
indian peace commission
-Composed of both soldiers and civilians
-Established in 1867 to recommend a new and presumably permanent Indian policy
-Recommended that the government move all the Plains tribes into two large reservations (one in Oklahoma and one in Dakota)
--This solution worked little better than previous ones
--Corrupt/incompetent agents of the Bureau of Indian Affairs administered the reservations abysmally
joseph glidden and I.L. Ellwood
developed and marketed barbed wire for fencing. Became standard fencing; revolutionized fencing practices all over world.
developed and marketed barbed wire for fencing.
labor trends in the west
When gold was discovered in the Black Hills Indian Reservation in South Dakota, whites invaded the Indians' lands and drove them on the warpath. The war culminated in June 1876, when Colonel George A. Custer and all his men were killed by Sioux Indians at the Battle of Little Bighorn (Custer's Last Stand)in southern Montana.
sand creek massacre (black kettle)
Colonel J.M. Chivington's militia massacred some four hundred Indians in cold blood—Indians who had thought they had been promised immunity and Indians who were peaceful and harmless.
was a leader of the Southern Cheyenne after 1854, who led efforts to resist white American settlement from Kansas and Colorado territories. He was a peacemaker who accepted treaties to protect his people.
settlement trends of the late 1800's
One of the leaders of the Sioux tribe. He was a medicine man " as wily as he was influential." He became a prominent Indian leader during the Sioux Was from 1876-1877.( The war was touched off when a group of miners rushed into the Black Hills of South Dakota in 1875.) The well-armed warriors at first proved to be a superior force. During Custer's Last Stand in 1876, Sitting Bull was " making medicine" while another Indian, Crazy Horse, led the Sioux. When more whites arrived at the Battle of Little Big Horn, Sitting Bull and the other Sioux we forced into Canada.
timber culture act
1873-act of Congress added to the Homestead Act stating a person who planted 40 acres of trees and maintained timber for 10 years were granted 160 acres of land
secret societies formed by the Chinese, some were violent and involved in the opium trade and prostitution. Tong wars like gang warfare between Chinese
transcontinental railroad labor
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west, A railroad that stretches across a continent from coast to coast. The Transcontinental Railroad made it so that it was easier to for mail and goods to travel faster and cheaper. It took land away from Native Americans and many were killed in the early stages.
workingmen's party of california
A labor organization in the US in the 1870s; led by Denis Kearney; were against Chinese immigration, because they took the labor because they were willing to settle for less money
wounded knee massacre
in response to the Ghost Dance; the federal army attacked the Indians and killed about 200 men, women and children, while about 29 of the invading soldiers died
-Seventh Cavalry tried to round up a group of about 350 cold and starving Sioux at Wounded Knee, South Dakota on December 29, 1890
-Fighting broke out in which about 40 white soldiers and up to 200 Indians died
--Battle turned quickly into a one-sided massacre as the white soldiers used their new machine guns on the Indians
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