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U.S. History ch. 5
Dr. Ronald Rexilius - Houston Baptist University. "A Patriot's History of the United States"
Terms in this set (74)
United States statesman and leader of the Federalists. As the first Secretary of the Treasury he establish a federal bank; was mortally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr (1755-1804)
Opposers of administration (Anti-Feds). Didn't support Alien or Sedition acts.
supporters of the stronger central govt. who advocated the ratification of the new constitution
Hamilton's economic plan
1790-1791: tries to stable American finances. 1) Assumption of State debts 2) Creation of a National Bank 3) Promotion of the manufacturing industry. First two are passed. Federalists support all of Hamilton's ideas, but Republicans think Hamilton is trying to make America more like England, which they believe is corrupt.
"dynasty" comprised of the four of the first five presidents (Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe), all of whom Virginian plantation owners
father of the constitution; leading federalist; author of the Bill of Rights
Secretary of State
Judiciary Act of 1789
Passed by congress that established a Supreme Court and district courts.
first chief justice of the Supreme Court
Report on Public Credit (1790) - National Debt
Report on a National Bank (1790)
Report on Manufacturers (1791)
necessary and proper caluse
the clause in the constituion (article 1, section8, clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of congress. It states that congress in addition to express powers has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the constitution vest in the national government
Part of the excise taxes, the whiskey tax added a tax on whiskey at seven cents a gallon This helped pay of some of the debt.
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
hamilton vs. jefferson
Federalists, led by Alexander Hamilton vs. Antifederalists, led by Thomas Jefferson. The debate between the two concerned the power of the central government versus that of the states, with the Federalists favoring the govt and the Antifederalists advocating states' rights. Their differences helped to give rise to political parties.
treaty of paris 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
First appointed Secretary of war under George Washington
battle of fallen timbers 1789
The U.S. Army defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River
Treaty of greenville 1795
Drawn up after the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The 12 local Indian tribes gave the Americans the Ohio Valley territory in exchange for a reservation and $10,000.
Pinckney Treaty (Treaty of San Lorenzo)
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans
declaration of the rights of man and the citizen
French Revolution: This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
Proclamation of Neutrality 1793
Washington believed the young nation was not strong enough to go to war and as a result, he proclaimed neutrality in the French conflict
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service
French diplomat, hoped to persuade Americans to honor their 1778 military alliance with France
1794 - It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals.
This was the race for the presidency after George Washington retired. John Adams was the Federalist Party's candidate and Thomas Jefferson was the Democratic-Republican's candidate. It was a very intense race, with the issues focusing heavily on personalities. John Adams, who was mostly supported in New England, won the election and became president. As runner-up, Thomas Jefferson became vice president.
--Creation of an executive cabinet
--Judiciary Act of 1789
--Tariff of 1789
--Funding of Federal Debt and Assumption of State Debt, 1790
--Passage of the Bill of Rights, 1791
--Whiskey Tax, 1791
--Put down the whiskey rebellion
--Created the Bank of the United States, 1791
French foreign minister; infamous because of his requested bribe during the XYZ affair, but instrumental in settling the details of the Louisiana Purchase
X Y Z Affair
a diplomatic scandal that lasted from March of 1797 to 1800. Three French agents, publicly referred to as X, Y, and Z, demanded major concessions from the United States as a condition for continuing bilateral peace negotiations. The concessions demanded by the French included 50,000 pounds sterling, a $12 million loan from the United States, a $250,000 personal bribe to French foreign minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, and a formal apology for comments made by U.S. President John Adams.
Alien and sedition acts
Acts passed by federalists giving the government power to imprison or deport foreign citizens and prosecute critics of the government
was one of the famous arrestees of the Alien and Sedition Acts. His crime was spitting at a Federalist's face and criticizing Adam's policies`
Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
Resolutions passed in 1798 that attacked the Alien and Sedition Acts as being unconstitutional
juduciary act 1801
creates federal courts and federal peace in DC think they could have more power in judiciary
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of judicial review.
ownership of human beings; a system of bondage in which a slave has the legal status of property and so can be bought as sold like property.
revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."
Thomas Jefferson's stately self-designed home in Virginia that became a model of American architecture
Secretary of the Treasury under Jefferson
Hudson River stronghold offered to the british by benedict arnold for money and a military commission
Marbury v. Madison 1803
this case establishes the Supreme Court's power of judicial review
Dartmouth college v. Woodward
1819--New Hampshire had attempted to take over Dartmouth College by revising its colonial charter. The Court ruled that the charter was protected under the contract clause of the U. S. Constitution; upholds the sanctity of contracts.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government
Roger B. Taney
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court appointed by Jackson. (After John Marshall)
Treaty of Ildefonso
1800 - In this treaty, Spain gave the Louisiana territory back to France (France had lost it to Spain in the Seven Years War).
Robert Livingston and James Monroe
Negotiated the Louisiana Purchase.
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
United States explorer and soldier who lead led an expedition from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River (1774-1809)
United States explorer who (with Meriwether Lewis) led an expedition from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River
native american woman who served as a guide an interpreter for the lewis and clark expedition
American soldier and explorer whom Pikes Peak in Colorada is named. His Pike expedition often compared to the lewis and Clark expedition, mapped much of the southern portion of the Louisianna Purchase
Aaron Burr v. Alexander Hamilton
Hamilton against Burr, accuses Burr of plotting treason. Burr challenges Hamilton to duel, kills him. Burr moves west to avoid persecution. supposly creates a mysterious plan with james wilkinson, who turns on him and arrested Burr for treason.
Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations
U.S. captain who prevented Barbary Pirates from using U.S. ship which they had captured (USS Philadelphia)
American helping overthrow Barbary Coast Pirates (Jefferson).
Non-Importation Act 1806
forbade the importation of certain British goods in an attempt to coerce Great Britain to suspend its impressment of American sailors and to respect American sovereignty and neutrality on the high seas
1807 - The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology.
1807 Embargo Act
*In response British trade restrictions
*halted trade with France British until they repealed restrictions
Republicans who criticized the War of 1812 (even though it was started by a Republican president) because it did not follow the traditional Republican idea of limited federal government.
Madison (R) vs Clinton (R)
2 republicans because Federalists and antiwar supported Clinton.
Madison won, close race
John Quincy Adams
Sixth president of the United States He was in favor of funding national research and he appointed Henry Clay as his Secretary of State. During his presidency the National Republicans were formed in support of him.
1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.
Macon's Bill No. 2
1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
- "The Great Compromiser"
- War Hawk
- United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states.
John C. Calhoun
- South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
- Wrote "Address to States' Rights and Nullification"
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
Captain Oliver Hazard Perry
led the Battle of Lake Erie - he had no fleet so he built his own ship - the British battered his ship and left it helpless - he rowed to another American ship & finally won this battle. He wrote this message on the back of the envelops " We have met the enemy & they are ours"
Francis Scott Key
United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812. The poem later became the Star Spangled Banner.
Captain Thomas Macdonough
He saved New York from a British Invasion from the Hudson River. (War of 1812)
Meeting by Federalists dissatisfied with the war to draft a new Constitution; resulted in seemingly traitorous Federalist party's collapse
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Jackson proposed a bodily removal of the remaining eastern tribes--chiefly Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles--beyond the Mississippi; emigration was supposed to be voluntary because it would be cruel to make them leave the graves of their fathers; Jackson believed the Indians could preserve their native cultures in the wide-open west.
supporters of a strong central government who favored road building and supported the Bank of the United States to shape the nation's economy; many were farmers or merchants
Political movement that felt people should have the power, favored state governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpertation of the government, liked the French, disliked the national bank and tariffs. Originally this met the Democratic-Republican description, but as Jefferson became more moderate over his second term and the Federalists collapsed, this group began to disassociate from Jefferson
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