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Soils Final (midterm questions)
Terms in this set (36)
TRUE or False
Soil is a 4-dimensional complex habitat, a self-organizing natural body, and a living thing
Type of parent material consisting of wind-blown sediment
The removal of materials from a soil horizon, either dissolved or suspended in solution
Composition of soil components
5% organic material, 45% minerals, 50% pores either filled with water or air
Oxidation and reduction are examples of
Three things that would speed up the rate of soil development
Fast growing Douglas fir forest, basalt parent material, high effective precipitation
Fine textured soil that is fast weathering and fertile
fine textured dark colored igneous rock (basalt)
Physical weathering processes.......
break down rocks and sediments into smaller pieces
You would expect chemical weathering to proceed most rapidly under conditions of....
hot temperatures and high precipitations
Silicate clay accumulations is most common in what horizon?
For which soil order would recently deposited river alluvium most likely be a common parent material?
If a soil was going to be used for crop production, for which soil order would land drainage be most critical?
When feldspar reacts with water and carbonic acid to form clay, silicic acid, potassium ions, and bicarbonate ions in solution, that reaction is an example of.....
What are the 5 soil forming factors?
Climate, organisms, relief, parent material, time
Soil functions to support plant growth
Provides structural support
Provides essential nutrients
Provides protection from toxic substances
A type of parent material consisting of poorly sorted fragments carried down slope by gravity
Topsoil showing evidence of plowing
What soil order is usually associated with a cool, moist climate, coniferous forest, and well-drained sandy parent material
TRUE or FALSE
O, A, B, C, and E horizons can be found in every soil profile
A soil with a bulk density equal to 0.35 g/cm3 is most likely...
a peat soil (Histosols)
Which clay mineral type has the highest amount of ismorphous substitution and therefor the highest net negative charge in its layers and the highest nutrient holding capacity
What is CEC (cation exchange capacity)
a measure of negatively charged exchange sites on exchangeable surfaces in soil
Which particle size allows water to move the greatest distance through capillary movement?
Which type of soil structure is most commonly found in surface soil (A horizons)
Practices that add organic matter and reduce tillage can be expected to most significant increase what in the soil?
Amount of macropores
Field capacity def.
Water content of a soil with water potential of about -10kpa (ideal for plant growth)
At what soil water potential is soil water held most tightly (most tension or pressure)
The negative charge of 2:1 type silicate clays is due to...
substitution of one atom for another in the crystal structure of the clay
Wilting point def.
soil with a water potential of -1500 kPa
2:1 silicate clay
One octahedral sheet sandwiched between two tetrahedral sheets
Tetrahedral sheet def.
a plane of silicon atoms surrounded by oxygen
Bulk Density Equation
Db= dry mass / unit volume
100* [1- (Db/Dp)]
Dp = 2.65
Gravimetric water content Equation
100 * (wet mass - dry mass) / dry mass
Volumetric Water content Equation
gravimetric water * Db
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