Unit 6- WW2 Review
Terms in this set (42)
"Il Duce", fascist leader of Italy, led the Black Shirts to march on Rome where he was established as dictator before World War II. He joined forces with Hitler and Tojo to form the Axis Powers.
Austrian-born founder of the German Nazi Party and chancellor of the Third Reich. His fascist philosophy, embodied in Mein Kampf, attracted widespread support, and after 1934 he ruled as an absolute dictator. His pursuit of aggressive nationalist policies resulted in the invasion of Poland and the subsequent outbreak of World War II. His regime was infamous for the extermination of millions of people, especially European Jews. He committed suicide when the collapse of the Third Reich was imminent.
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition. During World War II he signed a non-aggression pact with Germany but also allied with the United States and England.
Emperor of Japan from 1926 to 1989; he led Japan during World War II and was forced into unconditional surrender following the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Was considered a god-like figure.
British statesman who as Prime Minister pursued a policy of appeasement toward fascist Germany but was replaced in 1941 by Winston Churchill.
British Prime Minister who replaced Chamberlain in 1941. He lead England through World War II and allied with the United States and the Soviet Union to fight the Axis powers. When the war ended, he predicted Stalin would lower an "iron curtain" over Eastern Europe
Republican of North Dakota, headed a 1934-1936 Senate investigation, which concluded that banking and munition interests, whom it called "merchants of death", had tricked the US into war to protect their loans and weapon sales to England and France.
A World War I pilot who flew the first solo trans-Atlantic flight. Prior to the U.S.'s entry into World War II, he urged the U.S. to remain neutral and was active with the America First Committee, though during the war he flew 50 combat missions in the Pacific.
A. Phillip Randolph
African-American civil rights leader and union organizer who planned a march on Washington to protest racial discrimination in war industries and the armed forces during World War II.
President of the United States following Harry Truman in 1953. Escalated the war in Vietnam by supporting France's efforts to maintain control of Vietnam. During World War II he organized D-Day, the invasion of the beach in Normandy and one of the most successful (and largest) allied attacks during the war. He also oversaw Operation Torch, Casablanca, and the defeat of Germany in Europe. Warned America of the Military Industrial Complex.
U.S. general and World War II hero. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the Southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.
United States physicist who directed the project at Los Alamos that developed the first atomic bomb (Manhattan Project).
Leading physicist in the Manhattan Project, created the petition signed by 70 other scientists arguing that it would be immoral to drop an atomic bomb on Japan without fair warning due to their near-defeat status at the time.
Military general commander of the Manhattan Project.
This man ran FDR's Office of Economic Stabilization. Under his rule from 1942 to 1946, the US was an absolute socialist model run off of this department. He was arguably the most powerful man in America during the war.
Invasion of Manchuria (1931)
The Japanese, motivated by the need for raw materials and a desire to take over Chinese territory and expand, invaded the province of Manchuria and held the territory until the end of the war, when they were forced by the United States to give it up.
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
Non-Aggression Pact (1939)
A pact signed by Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 promising that neither country would take directly aggressive action against the other. This was broken by Germany when Hitler decided to invade the Soviet Union.
Senate committee led by South Dakota Senator Gerald Nye to investigate why America became involved in WWI. Theory that big business had conspired to have America enter WWI so that they could make money selling war materials. Called bankers and arms producers "merchants of death."
Neutrality Acts of 1935 and 1936
Designed to keep us out of this war. Congress says no selling arms to either side. FDR says that if people want to visit these countries they are on their own, no one will accompany them.
Invasion of Poland (1939)
On September 1st, 1939, Hitler and the Nazi military force invaded Poland, annexing it as an extension of Germany under the power of Hitler. This caused Britain and France to declare war on Germany.
Cash and Carry (AKA Neutrality Act of 1939)
Policy passed by the United States government which stated that we would sell military supplies to any country provided they paid in cash and transported the weapons or supplies with their own ships.
America First Committee
A committee organized by isolationists before World War II, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.
Selective Service Act (Sept. 1940)
This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of World War I, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.
Lend-Lease Act (1941)
The name of the program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war material between 1941 and 1945 in return for, in the case of Britain, military bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda, and the British West Indies.
USS Greer, Pink Star, USS Kearny, Reuben James
American boats attacked by Nazis before the United States entered World War II. FDR gave the US ships permission to shoot on sight in the future. This was proof that we were fighting the Nazis at sea before our official entrance into the war after Pearl Harbor.
Pledge signed by US president FDR and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of World War II and to work for peace after the war was ended.
December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
Military strategy adopted by the United States that required concentrating on the defeat of Germany while maintaining a holding action against Japan in the Pacific during World War II.
FDR and Churchill met in Morocco to settle the future strategy of the Allies following the success of the North African campaign. They decided to launch an attack on Italy through Sicily before initiating an invasion into France over the English Channel. Also announced that the Allies would accept nothing less than Germany's unconditional surrender to end the war.
Battle of Stalingrad
World War II battle between invading German forces and Soviet defenders for control of Stalingrad; each side sustained hundreds of thousands of casualties; Germany's defeat marked turning point in the war, as the Soviet Union was finally able to drive back the German Army.
June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which "we will accept nothing less than full victory." More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion, and by day's end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot-hold in Normandy.
1945 meeting between Churchill, Stalin, and Roosevelt in which the leaders discussed plans for the post-war world and Stalin promised to allow free elections in Eastern Europe. The breaking of this promise led in part to the Cold War. Stalin also promised that the Soviet Union would enter the war in the Pacific three months after the war in Europe ended.
May 8th, 1945. Victory in Europe Day- the day that Germany declared it's unconditional surrender to the Allied Forces.
Lt. Colonel Doolittle's psychological point was to bomb Tokyo and several other Japanese cities. This did little damage. It was an important psychological point for both Americans and Japanese: Japan was vulnerable to attack. It was the first mainland bombing in Japan and was intended solely to boost American morale.
Battle of Midway
U.S. Naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II when the Allied forces began taking back occupied islands.
The American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan. Strategy developed by Chester Nimitz
In World War II, Japanese pilots who loaded their aircraft with bombs and crashed them into enemy ships on suicide missions.
The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded this island, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000. This was the last battle before the Atomic Bombs were dropped.
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
Japanese city devastated during World War II when the United States dropped the second atomic bomb on Aug 8th, 1945. The unconditional surrender of Japan followed this event.