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Psychology Chapter 5
Chapter 5 : Variations in Consciousness Definitions & Concepts (Outlined)
Terms in this set (64)
the awareness of internal & external stimuli
a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp.
periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning.
24-hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species.
records muscular activity and tension.
records eye movement.
records contractions of the heart.
sleep that consists of stages 3 & 4, during which low-frequency delta waves become prominent in EEG recordings.
a deep state of sleep marked by rapid eye movements, high-frequency brain waves, and dreaming.
consists of sleep stages 1 - 4, which are marked by an absence of rapid eye movement, relatively little dreaming, and varied EEG activity.
refers to chronic problems in getting adequate sleep.
a disease marked by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods.
involves frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep.
(sleepwalking) occurs when a person arises and wanders about while remaining asleep.
a systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened state of suggestibility.
refers to a family of practices that train attention to heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control.
chemical substances that modify mental, emotional, or behavioral functioning.
(opiates) drugs that are derived from opium that are capable of relieving pain. examples: morphine, heroin
sleep-inducing drugs that tend to decrease central nervous system activation and behavioral activity. examples: barbiturates / benzodiazepines
drugs that tend to increase central nervous system activation and behavioral activity examples: amphetamines, cocaine
a diverse group of drugs that have powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning, marked most prominently by distortions in sensory and perceptual experience. examples: LSD, mescaline
the hemp plant from which marijuana, hashish, and THC are derived.
encompasses a variety of beverages containing ethyl alcohol. examples: beers, wines, spirits
(ecstasy) a compound drug that is related to both amphetamines and hallucinogens, especially mescaline.
refers to a progressive decrease in a person's responsiveness to a drug as a result of continued use.
exists when a person must continue to take a drug to avoid withdrawal illness.
exists when a person must continue to take a drug to satisfy intense mental and emotional craving.
cycles per unit of time.
What do the waves look like when you're awake?
high frequency, low amplitude (beta waves)
What do waves look like when you're relaxed?
What do waves look like during stage 2?
What do waves look like during stage 3?
high amplitude/low frequency (delta waves)
What do waves look like during stage 4?
all delta waves. (now considered a part of stage 3)
Emergent stage 1
(looks how it does when you're awake)
heart rate/breathing: same as when you're awake
muscle tension: virtually none - paralysis
eyes darting, clitoral/penile erection
(REM stage, Dream stage, Paradoxical stage)
First 4 hours of sleep
Stage 3 - 4
Last 4 hours of sleep
Average amount of time someone dreams a night?
(remember dreams: wake up after emergent stage 1)
(people wake up 10 minutes after sleep; either think about the dream they just had or they day ahead --- reason some remember dreams so vividly)
(13 - 24 cps)
normal waking thought/alert problem solving
(8 - 12 cps)
deep relaxation, blank mind, meditation
(4 - 7 cps)
(under 4 cps)
Realigning circadian rhythms
carefully times exposure to bright light
Average time for people to fall asleep
Stage 1 of sleep
brief transitional stage of light sleep that only usually lasts for 10 - 12 minutes
Descending through stages 2 - 4 of sleep
brain waves become higher in amplitude/slower in frequency
move in to "slow wave sleep"
Repeating the sleep cycle
during the course of one night, people usually repeat the cycle about 4 times.
Evolutionary bases of sleep (3 hypotheses)
1: sleep evolved to conserve organisms' energy
2: immobilization associated with sleep is adaptive because it reduces exposure to predators/other dangers.
3: sleep is adaptive because it helps animals restore energy and other bodily resource depleted by waking activities.
Partial sleep deprivation (sleep restriction)
occurs when people make do with substantially less sleep than normal over a period of time.
special type of partial sleep deprivation
selectively deprived of REM
3 basic patterns of insomnia
difficulty in falling asleep initially
difficulty in remaining asleep
persistent early-morning awakening
Theories of dreaming (Freud, Cartwright, & Hobson)
freud: dreams as wish fulfillment
cartwright: problem solving view (we mull over major problems in our lives with reduced logical constraints)
hobson: activation-synthesis model (cortex constructs a story to make sense of internal signals from lower brain centers)
Franz Anton Mesmer
stumbled onto the power of suggestion
inspired followers, "mesmerized" : under the spell of an event/story
popularized hypnotism in 1843
Dual existence of hypnotism
1: subject of numerous scientific studies, clinical tool
2: an assortment of entertainers and quacks have continued the less respectable tradition of mesmerism.
Prominent hypnotic phenomena
Most common forms of meditation in America
yoga, zen, and transcendental meditation (TM)
a specially assigned Sanskrit word that is personalized for each meditator.
Factors influencing drug effects
user's age, mood, motivation, personality, previous experience, body weight, physiology
dose/potency of the drug, method of administration, setting in which the drug is taken
3 principal risks when using drugs
tissue damage (direct effects)
health-impairing behavior (indirect effects)
REM Rebound Effect
occurs when someone does not get enough REM sleep; characterized by more anxious dreaming & falling directly into REM sleep
common in children
usually caused by stress
primarily in children
usually caused by stress
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
to stay awake; chew on a plastic spoon, brain will think you're eating
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