Upgrade to remove ads
Psychology Chapter 6
Learning Definitions & Concepts (Outlined)
Terms in this set (57)
any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience.
involves learning associations between events that occur in an organism's environment.
a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning.
Unconditioned Response (UR)
an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response.
Conditioned Response (CR)
a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of a previous conditioning.
Trial (in classical conditioning)
consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli.
the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency.
the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus.
if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place.
occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.
a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences.
occurs when an event following a response increases an organism's tendency to make that response.
a small enclosed box in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled.
the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers.
creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time.
the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response.
Resistance to extinction
occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer for it has been terminated.
cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response.
(example: ask for ice cream when mom is in a good mood)
events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs.
Secondary (conditioned) reinforcers
events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers.
Schedule of reinforcement
specific pattern of presentation of reinforcers over time.
occurs when ever instance of a designated response is reinforced.
occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time.
the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses.
the reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses.
will take longer to reach extinction than FR.
the reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed.
the reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time has elapsed. the interval length varies around a predetermined average.
will take longer to reach extinction than FI.
an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation.
an organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring.
involves species-specific predispositions to be conditioned in certain ways and not others.
learning that is not apparent from behavior when it first occurs.
occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models.
a systematic approach to changing behavior through the application of the principles of conditioning.
Father of classical conditioning
"psychic reflex" became the "conditioned reflex"
occurs when a CS functions as if it were an US
Ivan Pavolv's research
Meat (unconditioned stimulus) - Salivation (unconditioned response)
Bell (neutral stimulus) - Meat (UCS) - Salivation (UCR)
Bell (conditioned stimulus) - Salivation (conditioned response)
Baby experiences it's first shot, goes back next week to the doctor for more, sees the doctor, immediately cries.
Pain from shot (UCS) - Crying (UCR)
Doctor (conditioned stimulus) - Crying (conditioned response)
Drank too much alcohol mixed with dr. pepper, vomits
Poisoning (UCS) - Vomits (UCR)
Smell of dr. pepper (CS) - Feels nauseous (CR)
Factors of aqcusition
strength of UCS
number of trails
CS - UCS interval trials
present CS first, present UCS after
Pavlov used this. Rang bell, presented meat, fed dog
present CS & UCS at the same time
present CS first, present UCS during CS
Most effective; takes longest to reach extinction
present UCS first, present CS after
Doesn't work at all
Average amount of time is takes to operant condition something
Between variable ratio schedule & variable interval schedule, which will take longer?
Variable interval; more complex task... has to count time AND peck. VR bird just has to count pecks.
anything that increases the likelihood of the occurrence of the correct response.
anything that decreases the likelihood of the occurrence of the incorrect response.
Clean your room, you can play playstation for an extra half hour.
You won't have to take out the garbage if you clean your room right now.
If you mess up your room again, i will spank you. (give pain)
If you mess up your room again, i won't let you watch tv.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Psychology Chapter 5
Psychology Chapter 7
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
PY101 Chapter 6- Learning
Chapter 6: Learning
Chapter 6 Terms
AP Psych Ch 16
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Anthro Exam II
Sound & Sense Vocabulary Terms
Muscular System Terminology II
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
World history test 2-12
ENTM 206 Exam 3
Greenhouse Exam 1