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Psychology Chapter 7
Human Memory Definitions & Concepts (Outlined)
Terms in this set (56)
involves forming a memory code.
involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time.
involves recovering information from memory stores.
involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events.
proposes that deeper levels of processing result i longer-lasting memory codes.
linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding.
preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second.
Short term memory
a limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds.
the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about information.
a group of familiar stimuli stores as a single unit.
Long term memory
a unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time.
unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events.
an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event.
consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts.
Connectionist (parallel distributed processing) models
assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks.
the temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it's just out of reach.
occurs when participants' recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading postevent information.
the process of make inferences about the origins of memories.
Source monitoring error
occurs when memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source.
consonant-vowel-consonant arrangements that don't correspond to words.
graphs retention and forgetting over time
refers to the proportion of material retained (remembered).
requires participants to reproduce information on their own without any cues.
requires participants to select previously learned information from an array of options.
requires participants to memorize information a second time to determine how much time or effort is saved by having learned it before.
proposes that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time.
proposes that people forget information because of competition from other material.
occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.
occurs when previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information.
Encoding specificity principle
states that the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code.
refers to keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious.
a person loses memories for events that occurred prior to the injury.
a person loses memories for events that occur after the injury.
a hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes stored in long term memory.
Long term potentiation
long lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along a specific neural pathway.
formation of new neurons.
handles factual information
houses memory for actions, skills, conditioned responses, and emotional memories.
Episodic memory (part of declarative)
made up of chronological, or temporarily dated, recollections of personal experiences. (autobiography)
Semantic memory (part of declarative)
contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned. (encyclopedia)
involves remembering to perform actions in the future
involves remembering events from the past of previously learned information.
3 types of storage
short term storage (small capacity, short duration)
-selective attention, allows you to take info from sensory storage and attend to it more
- waking memory
-phonological loop (language, echoic)
- visuospacial sketchpad (visual, iconic)
- episodic buffer
long term storage (high capactity, long duration)
- flashbulb memories
- imaginal code ---episodic
- linguistic code ----semantic
- motor code---procedural
Recall vs. Recognition
Recall: go in to memory storage, pull out matieral
Recognition: stimulus is present, compare it to something in storage
State dependent retrieval
psychological state you're in when you store information can store as a cue to retrieve
Context dependent retrieval
context under which you were in serves as a cue for retreival
Mood dependent retrieval
mood you're in allows you to remember instances from an earlier time in which you were feeling the same way.
things at beginning tend to be remembered.
things at end tend to be remembered
things that stand out are more likely to be remembered
hear same thing over and over, you'll remember it
one bit instead of two
reconstruct things in your hea and that becomes the truth
visualizer things to remember words.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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