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poli sci final
Terms in this set (63)
According to the realist perspective, global markets in which governments reduce barriers to economic exchanges do not emerge usually except under a ________ power, like Great Britain or the United States.
________ refers to capital flows to a foreign country involving the acquisition or construction of manufacturing plants and other facilities.
Foreign Direct Investment
The capital account and current account of a country taken together constitute the ________, which records all economic transactions with other countries.
balance of payments
________ are exchange rates that are fixed by governments to gold, another currency, or a basket of currencies.
fixed/ managed exchange rates
The EU's ________, which sets domestic prices for agricultural products above market levels, is a prominent example of the use of price supports.
common agricultural policy
________ are policy instruments other than price, such as quotas and qualitative restrictions, designed to limit or regulate imports and exports.
The costs of alternative uses of resources based on competitive prices is a concept better known as ________.
Import substitution policies were used extensively in ________ to substitute domestic industries for imports, protect infant industries, and encourage economic growth.
________ are cost advantages whereby the larger the amount of a good that is produced, the lower the average cost of production.
economies of scale
________ is measured by how much output is produced by a given input.
________ are negotiations in which several countries participate and reduce trade barriers simultaneously.
multilateral trade rounds
The ________ is a phenomenon in which an abundance of natural resources inhibits development in other sectors.
________ refers to the idea that interdependence in one sector (like trade) will lead to
interdependence in another sector (like finance).
In response to the 2008-2009 financial crisis, the U.S. Congress authorized a $700 billion bailout package for the banks called the ________.
troubled asset release program
________ is the process of material, institutional, and human progress in a particular country or region.
________ separated violently from Indonesia in 1999.
________, a type of microeconomic policy, created a sense of participation on the part of rural areas and formed the basis for successful education programs.
________ refers to noncompetitive lending and investment relationships between government financial institutions and private industry.
The debate over ________ concerns whether or not Confucianism motivated domestic stability, bureaucracy, and economic success.
The policy of ________, initially created to decrease Latin America's dependence on foreign goods, ultimately made Latin America more vulnerable to international markets.
The term ________ is used to describe the economic stagnation in Latin America that lasted from the early 1970s to the late 1980s.
________ is a policy in which states extract savings from one sector, such as agriculture or labor, to benefit another sector, such as industry
The ________ includes business activities that take place outside the legal system of a country because of excessive regulations.
The ________ system in Mexico is a form of land reform that redistributed some land to peasants.
________ include necessities such as clothing, shelter, food, education, and health care.
basic human needs
Many small states in sub-Saharan Africa are ________, meaning they have no access to the coast.
The emigration of educated people from developing countries is better known as ________.
________ are periods of accelerating population growth even as living standards increase because death rates decline faster than birthrates.
Coal, oil, and natural gas are all examples of ________.
Air pollution, especially as a result of vehicle exhaust and industry, is better known as ________.
________ is the heating up of the Earth's atmosphere caused by greenhouse gas emissions.
________ are outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as AIDS, avian flu, and SARS, that spread or threaten to spread worldwide.
The ________, a specialized UN agency, is one of the largest and most technical international institutions focused on health.
world health organization
The critical theory perspective argues that mainstream analysts' understanding of economic development is based upon the idea that the history of ________ society provides the only pattern for development.
According to the critical theory perspective, globalization is driven by a ________, not sequential, logic that cannot be steered or stopped.
The conquest and exploitation by the European states of poorer peoples and lands in Latin America, Africa, and Asia is better known as ________.
________ is the forceful extension of a nation's authority to other peoples by military, economic, and political domination.
According to the critical theory perspective, growth is a ________ game, a process by which a dominant country systematically extracts profits from a subordinate country.
Approximately ten million ________ were transported from Africa to the Americas, in addition to millions that did not survive the journey.
The critical theory perspective emphasizes a set of dynamics they refer to as ________, which explains lack of development in terms of colonialism and oppression.
________ is the deep-seated disparity in the distribution of wealth and power generated by colonialism and dependency
If, over time, it takes larger quantities of exports of raw goods, like coffee beans, to earn enough money to buy a constant amount of imported manufactured goods, like refrigerators, we would say the country has experienced declining ________.
terms of trade
The world systems dynamic creates a ________ between leading sectors that generate high profits and lagging sectors that generate little or no profits.
division of labor
According to world systems theory, ________ have the greatest difficulty because they struggle to keep from falling backward while using government intervention to attempt to advance.
semi peripheral states
Modern ________ are the equivalent of the mercantile companies and plantations that were founded during the colonial period.
________ is the practice of paying off loans with direct labor instead of currency or goods.
According to the critical theory perspective, globalization marginalizes ________ and ________.
indigenous people; women
In 2007, the UN adopted the ________, emphasizing their rights to culture, identity, language, employment, health, education, and other benefits and outlawing discrimination against them.
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
The ________ refers to the gap between advanced and developing countries in terms of access to the digital devices or tools of the information age.
The ________ is a theory that democratic nations, for the most part, do not go to war with one another.
If the democratic peace theory holds true, it suggests that ________ could be eliminated through the spread of democracy.
A pair of interacting states is commonly called a ________ in statistical studies.
It is difficult to ascertain the relationship between democracy and war because the ________, or number of cases, is relatively small.
To observe stronger and more reliable patterns among variables, analysts seek a ________ sample size.
The ________ perspective would most likely argue that the democratic peace is the peace of the democratic hegemon, which is a product of historical circumstances
The ________ perspective would most likely argue that democracies are all more peaceful than other states.
According to the liberal perspective, more trade creates ________ gains, which democracies do not want to forfeit by going to war with one another.
The argument that democracies do not go to war with one another because they belong to the same international institutions, whose laws and practices they follow, is an example of an argument from the ________ level of analysis, if the argument depends on the rules of the institutions or the specialized roles that states play within these institutions.
The argument that democracies do not go to war with one another because they have unique contracting or negotiating advantages that allow them to settle disputes without war is an example of an argument from the ________ level of analysis.
The realist perspective argues that democracies do not go to war with one another because they successfully use ________ politics to avoid war.
balance of power
One explanation of the democratic peace contends that democracies do not go to war with one another because leaders have to appeal to larger coalitions to survive politically and, therefore, choose wars only with nondemocratic countries in which democracies enjoy an advantage in mobilizing ________.
An ________ outcome is one that is caused by multiple independent variables, the separate and interactive effects of which are not clear.
An analyst using ________ methodology may conclude that peace is an appropriate or more persuasive outcome associated with social discourse among democracies.
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