27 terms

Cambridge IGCSE Geography - Plate Tectonics

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Asthenosphere
The upper part of the Earth's mantle, where the rocks are more fluid.
Collision plate boundary
A tectonic margin at which two continental plates move towards each other
Stratovolcano
A cone-shaped volcano formed of alternating layers of lava and ash, with viscous lava and violent eruptions
Conservative plate boundary
A tectonic margin where two plates slide past each other and no crust is destroyed or created.
Continental crust
The part of the crust dominated by less dense granitic rocks, found under land.
Convection currents
Circulating movements of magma in the mantle caused by heat from the core
Core
The central part of the Earth, mostly composed of iron and nickel
Destructive plate boundary
Tectonic plate margins where a continental plate and an oceanic plate move towards each other. The oceanic plate is subducted, and an oceanic trench and volcanoes are formed.
Epicentre
The centre of an earthquake on the surface of the Earth.
Evacuation
The removal of people, generally in an attempt to avoid a disaster
Focus
The centre of an earthquake below the ground.
Magnitude
The size of an earthquake
Mantle
The layer of the earth below the crust, split into sections
Mitigation
Altering building design to reduce the impact of a natural disaster
Oceanic crust
The part of the crust dominated by denser basaltic rocks, found under seas and oceans
Plate boundary
The boundary between two tectonic plates
Prediction
Forecasting future changes
Preparation
The process of getting ready for an event
Radioactive decay
The process that occurred at the creation of the Earth
Response
The way in which people react to a situation
Richter Scale
The system used to measure earthquake strength
Seismograph
The machine used to measure earthquake intensity
Shield volcano
A shallow-sided volcano with regular, gentle eruptions
Emergency relief
Help and aid provided to an area to prevent immediate loss of life because of shortages of basics, such as water, food and shelter
Subduction
The process by which one tectonic plate moves under another tectonic plate and sinks into the mantle as the plates converge
Tectonic hazards
Threats posed by earthquakes, volcanoes and other crustal processes
Ash
Very small fragments of rock and lava that are produced by a volcanic eruption and ejected into the air.