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Terms in this set (99)
Statistical study of human populations.
The process of moving from one place to live in another.
The average number of people living in an area; usually expressed as persons per square mile or square kilometer.
The number of live births each year for every 1,000 people living in a place.
The total number of deaths each year for every 1,000 people in a place.
People who come to a new country to live.
People who leave a country to live somewhere else.
Factors causing people to leave a location.
Factors attracting people to a new location.
People who have been forced to leave an area.
Migrating, but not crossing a border.
Migrating by crossing a border.
A series of migrations within a family which often begins when a member of a family migrates and sends money home to bring other family members, eventually the family migrates.
These occur from chain migration. ______ _____ is a clustering of people from a specific region into certain neighborhoods or small towns.
Existing human population exceeds the carrying capacity of Earth. Will occur sometime in the future.
Internally Displaced Person (IDP)
Person forced to leave but does not cross any borders.
A system that lets competition among businesses determine the price of products.
An economic system in which businesses, industries, and resources are privately owned.
A political and economic system in which the government owns or controls almost all of the means of production.
The government makes the major economic decisions. The government decides what to produce, where to make it, and what to charge. (Communism)
Most basic. People make goods for themselves and their families. Little surplus of goods. Found in poorer countries. Mostly agricultural.
Mixed economies can have parts of market economies and command economies. Most developed countries are a mix, leaning more to market economies but may have some government regulations on business and resources. (US)
People freely choose what to buy and sell
Guided by free enterprise, businesses determine the price of goods. Business goal is to make a profit. Capitalism system: business, industry, and resources are privately owned. Richest countries have market economies.
Gross Domestic Products
The total value of goods and services created within a country.
Gross National Products
The total value of goods and services created within a country.
GNP per capita
The dollar value of a country's FINAL output of goods and services in a year divided by its population.
GDP per capita
The dollar value of a countries (NOT FINAL) output of goods and services in a year divided by its population.
The process by which manufacturing based on machine power becomes widespread in an area.
Percentage of people who can read and write.
The basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.
A tax or duty to be paid on a particular class of imports or exports.
When a country allows a certain amount of goods into their country.
When people call or use another country for help in businesses. (U.S. uses India for things like Delta) When a company in a country decides to use jobs out of the country.
The amount by which the cost of a country's imports exceeds the value of its exports.
North American Free Trade Agreement. was signed by the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Reduce barriers and encourages trade between member countries. Allow free movement of goods and services among the countries. Encourage cooperation among countries
Boundaries based on the landscape.
Boundaries that follow geometric patterns.
Boundaries based off of culture traits.
A feeling of pride and loyalty for one's country or culture group.
Almost all countries are a part of this and they make important decisions.
World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization. Works to make trade between countries fairer and easier.
The use of violence and fear as a political force.
Focuses on foreign policies and relations between different countries across the world.
There is no government to make or enforce laws.
Ruled by a ruling family (dynasty) that has absolute control over the country. They sometimes "allow" advisors to serve them, elected or appointed. They can give or take privileges as she or he pleases. Examples: Saudi Arabia, Monaco, Sweden, Oman, Jordan
These monarchies have a limit to their power to more of a "figure head". There is an elected representative branch (parliament or congress) which puts together a Constitution the king or queen can not touch. Most constitutional monarchies have an "in case" clause that allows the king or queen to suspend the constitution. Examples: England, Spain, Norway
A government that controls not only political and economic matters but also the attitudes, values, and beliefs of its citizens.
A government in which the power is in the hands of an emir (ruler of a Muslim state). The Emir may be absolute or limited by a constitution.
In a dictatorship, power can be inherited, but also acquired by force (military or political). Dictators have absolute control over the lives of their citizens and usually, people are not allowed to voice their negative opinions. North Korea's leader Kim Jong Un is considered a dictator of a totalitarian form of government.
"Rule by few" Power can be based on several things: Military strength = Military Junta, Family power = Aristocracy, Religious control = Theocratic Oligarchy. Oligarchies can often come from or lead to other forms of government (like autocracies)
"Theo" means "God" in Greek... so if a government is THEO-cratic that means it is ruled by... a god or higher power. Leaders (autocratic or oligarchic) are usually religious leaders and society uses religious law to settle its disputes. Example: The Islamic Republic of Iran is a modern theocracy that uses the holy Islamic book, The Qur'an, as its guide.
A system of government in which the state controls all political and economic systems. One party system.
A government which is formed to temporarily take the place of a government that was overthrown or is being replaced or reorganized.
Like direct democracy, all citizens participate in government. People elect representatives who vote on laws for the citizens. Representatives answer to the people through regular elections. Representatives are also usually held accountable by a constitution.
All citizens participate in government. There are can be representatives in government: But the citizen's vote on everything! All citizens can be part of making public policy if they want to. Example: In ancient Athens, Greece, they held assemblies where citizens voted to pass laws. Today, Switzerland is an example of a direct democracy.
Any object or other evidence that is the result of human behavior or action.
An area in which people have many shared cultural traits.
A community or population made up of people who share a common cultural background or descent. (Chrisitianity, Judism, Muslim)
Process in which an individual or group adopts some of the traits of another culture.
When immigrant groups adopt all of the features of the main culture.
A new idea that a culture accepts.
A process occurring when an idea or innovation spreads from one person or group to another and is adopted.
Traits spread when people move to a new place taking their culture with them.
Traits that spread from a larger place to a smaller place.
New idea spreads throughout a society (expands).
The process in which connections around the world increase and cultures become more alike.
It brings the world together and makes everyone more alike.
Many countries are very traditional and will not strive away from what their ancestors had done for their whole life such as wearing certain types of clothes.
Following longtime practices and opposing many modern technologies and ideas.
Movement in which people believe in strictly following certain established principles or teachings.
Most spoken language
Main language of globilization
A regional variety of language.
A language of trade and communication used by people who speak different languages.
Religions in which people believe in the presence of the spirits and forces of nature.
Religions that seek followers all over the world.
The belief in one god
The belief in many gods.
People whose goal it is to spread their religion.
Islamic houses of worship.
Religious journey to Mecca required of Muslims.
3 major factors for the number of people in any place.
Birth rate, death rate and migration.
Natural increase and how is it determined.
The rate of natural population growth. Formula: Birth rate- death rate.
Shows how a population changes. Population stages.
Stage 1 Population
High birth and death rate.
Stage 2 Population
High birth rate, decreasing death rate, but still pretty high.
Stage 3 Population
Low birth and death rate
Stage 4 Population
Low birth rate and death rate, increasing population due to immigration.
Stage 5 Population
Very low birth rate, little to no immigration
3 Physical factors of population density
Relief, resources and climate.
3 human factors of population density.
Political, social and economic.
Primary Economic Activity
Fishing, farming, mining, forestry. Use natural resources. found at the site of the natural resources being used.
Secondary Economic Activity
Manufacturing. Uses raw materials to produce a product. Located close to the resource or the market. Affected by labor, energy, and land costs.
Tertiary Economic Activity
Service industry. Provides services to people and business.
Quaternary Economic Activity
Process and distribute information. Located anywhere, not tied to natural resources
Includes administration, management, technology, research. Requires skilled, knowledgeable workers.
Less productive economically. Low standard of living. Low GDPs. Birthrates high, life expectancy low. Grades schools available, few go to high school
Farming is the main activity. Many lack electricity, computers, refrigerators, televisions. Few service and manufacturing jobs. People move to the cities looking for a job.
Have features of both developed and developing countries. Cities modern but rural areas and small towns are poor. New industry. People switching from rural to city life. Incomes are rising. Examples: Mexico, Brazil, Thailand, Malaysia
Highest level of industrialization. High standard of living. High GDP. High level of education, high literacy rate. Good healthcare, and high life expectancy. Most people work in service and manufacturing. Good infrastructure. Global market economies.
Standard of Living (How is it measured?)
Determined by a country's level of development. Measured by factors like personal income, the level of education, food consumption, literacy rate, healthcare, technology level, life expectancy.
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