15 terms

Miller & Levine Biology Chapter 20

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virus
nonliving particle made of proteins, nucleic acids, and sometimes lipids that can reproduce only by infecting living cells
capsid
protein coat surrounding a virus
bacteriophage
viruses that infect bacteria: "bacteria eaters"
lytic infections
virus enters a bacterial cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the cell to burst or lyse
lysogenic infections
host cell is not immediately taken over by the virus, instead the virus can "hide" in the host cell genome for generations until conditions are right, then the virus and host cell enter the lytic cycle
prophage
viral DNA embedded in a host bacterial cell's DNA
retrovirus
virus whose genetic RNA are copied to DNA instead of DNA to RNA
prokaryotes
unicellular organisms that lack a nucleus
bacillus
rod shaped prokaryote
coccus
sphere or ball shaped prokaryotes
spirillum
spiral shaped prokaryotes
binary fission
process where a prokaryote replicates its DNA and divides into two identical cells after almost doubling in size
endospore
state in which a prokaryote will build a thick internal wall that encloses the DNA and a portion of the cytoplasm in unfavorable conditions: can lie dormant for months
conjugation
exchange of prokaryotic genetic information via plasmid through a conjugation tube or conjugation pilus
plasmids
small pieces of prokaryotic DNA that carry genes that enable bacteria to survive in new environments or to resist antibiotics; transferred cell to cell during conjugation