Chemistry Final Trends in Periodic Table
Terms in this set (30)
Trend in atomic and ionic size?
increases down a group
decreases across a period
Ion size _____________ when charge increases/
What is ionization energy?
the energy required to remove 1 mol of electron from 1 mole of atoms/ions
Cations have a ___________ ionization energy.
Anions have a _________ ionization energy.
Ionization energy trend?
increases up a group and across a period
What is electron affinity?
the energy required to add 1 mole of electron to 1 mol of g atoms/ions
Cations have a ___________ electron affinity.
Anion have a ____________ electron affinity.
Reactive nonmetals have a _____________ ionization energy and electron affinity. They attract __________ to form _________ ions.
Reactive metals have a _________ ionization energy and electron affinity. They ___________ electrons.
Noble gases have a ________ ionization energy and slightly ___________ electron affinity because they neither lose or gain electrons.
Trend of electron affinity.
increase up a group and across a period
Properties of metallic behavior:
1. __________ solids with ______ melting point
2. good conductors of heat and ________
4. ____________ electrons to form cations= ___________
4. Strong ___________ agents
5. most form _______________ oxides which act ________ in solution
Trend of metallic behavior?
increase down a group
decrease across a period
1. Oxide of metals - ___________ in solution
2. oxide of nonmetals- ____________ in solution
Acid-base behavior of oxides:
1. metals form _________ oxides that are _______ in solution
2. Nonmetals form ___________ oxides that are ____________ in solution
3. Some metals and metalloids form ___________________ oxides that act as acid and base in ____________-
1. ionic; basic
2. covalent; acidic
3. amphoteric; water
Hydrogen reacts with very reactive metals to form ____________ hydrides. Look like _______________
white crystalline solids
Hydrogen reacts with nonmetals to form __________ hydrides.
Hydrogen reacts with transition metals to form __________ hydrides.
Group 1A: alkali Metals
1. powerful ________ agents
2. reduce __________ to form ionic solids
3. react vigorously with _________-
4. reduce ____________ to form ___________ hydrides
5. reduce _______ in air and tarnish _______
6. _________ metals with ________ boiling and melting points
7. low ________ and can float on water
8. very reactive
4. hydrogen; ionic
5. oxygen; rapidly
6. soft; low
Group 2A: alkaline earth metals:
1. _________ form from basic solution
2. melt at __________ temperatures
3. __________ ionization energy than group 1A
4. strong __________ agents
1. Metals reduce oxygen to form _______________
2. larger metals reduce water to form _________ gas
3. Metals reduce halogens to form ______________ halides
4. Most elements reduce hydrogen to form __________ hydrides
5. reduce nitrogen_________
6. all _______ undergo thermal decomposition
2. extremely high
5. ionic nitrides
Group 3A: Boron family reactions:
1. react ________ with water
2. when strongly heated with oxygen__________
3. all reduce ______________
4. exhibit ______________ states
5. lower oxidation state becomes prominent __________ a group creating an _________
6. oxides of element in a lower oxidation state __________
5. down ; inert pair
6. increase in basic
Boron Chemistry: Group 3A:
1. All boron components are _____
2. electron deficient meaning they're a lewis _______
3. ______________ where one pair of electrons is shared between 3 atoms
4. diagnol relationship between __________ and __________
5. form _____________ in strong base
3. bridge bonds
4. be and al
1. oxidized by _________________
2. oxidized by _________
3. more _____________ as you move down a group
4. ________________ react with oxygen
5. ____________ form different crystalline/molecular forms of the same element
Carbon forms predominately ______________ bonds.
Group 4A but larger members form bonds with __________ character.
Multiple oxidation states. ____________ oxidation states become more prominent ______________ a group.
Pb and Sn are more __________ in lower oxidation states.
Carbon in organic chemistry:
wide variety of organic compounds due to its ability of C to bind to itself and from multiple bonds
______ when carbon bonds to itself to form stable chains, branches, and rings
Inorganic compound of carbon:
Carbon bonds with oxygen to form __________
Carbon forms 2 gaseous oxides , ________ and ___________. are molecular. THey from _______________ covalent or ionic _____________.
Carbon ________ have major uses as solvents and structural plastics.
CO and CO2
Highlights of silicon chemistry:
Silicon bonds to oxygen to from repeating Si---O units which are found in ______ and ___________.
Silicate building unit is the ____________ grouping SiO4 which has a tetrahedral arrangement.
silicon and silicates
1. nitrogen is a diatomic gas with a very low _______ due to its very weak intermolecular forces
2. hydrides of other group members are formed by reactions in water or acid
3. _____________ are formed by direct combination of elements :
4. ____________ are formed from the hallides in a reaction with h]water.
. 1. boiling point
1. Nitrogen gains _____ electrons to fomrm anion N^3- but onlh
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