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detects and interprets information from the surrounding environment, controls most body function
when a neuron is resting, the inside of the neuron is negatively charged compared to outside the neuron
resting membrane potential
-70mV in most cells, a polarized cell maintains this when not transmitting
this uses a molecule of ATP to move three Na+ out of the cell and two K+ into the cell
channels that open when the cell reaches a charge higher than its resting membrane potential, usually around -50mV
the amount of time in which a neuron is unable to fire another action potential which keeps the impulse from travelling in two directions
the space between the axon of the first neuron and the dendrites of the second neuron
are completely within the brain and spinal cord, and often connect sensory and motor neurons
our conscious mind, where voluntary actions occur, such as movement, speech, and problem solving, where we have conscious awareness of sensations
part of the brain in which involuntary acts originate, such as breathing and blood pressure regulation, and is a primitive area
this part of the body maintains homeostasis by monitoring hormone levels, electrolyte balance, temperature, etc.
this part of the ANS helps prepare the body for stress by increasing heartbeat, blood pressure, etc. the neurotransmitter used is norepinephrine.
this part of the ANS is most active when you are at rest, and moves blood to the digestive organs, decreases heartbeat, and uses acetylcholine
chemicals made by glands, secreted into the blood, and has slow effects on targetted organs
long distance messengers made of amino acids which must bind to receptors outside the cell, cause effects rapidly by turning enzymes in the cell on or off, and include insulin, prolactin, and glucagon
long distance messengers made from cholesterol which can easily cross cell membranes and bind to receptors inside the cell, they are more slow, and cause their effects by binding to DNA and changing which genes are transcribed
the master gland which is controlled by the hypothalamus and is divided into anterior and posterior
growth, thyroid stimulating, adrenocorticotropic, follicle stimulating, luteinizing, prolactin
six hormones that the anterior pituitary gland makes and secretes
targets all tissues and organs and causes them to grow, important in children, but stimulates cell-turnover rate in adults
follicle stimulating hormone
targets the gonads: causes maturation of ova and release of ova and causes testes to make sperm
targets the gonads, causing the ovaries to develop a corpus luteum and the testes to make testosterone
this hormone causes the uterus to contract during childbirth and causes the mammary glands to release milk
this hormone affects body cell's by increasing their rate of metabolism, meaning they work harder and use more energy
activates special cells in bone that remove calcium from the blood and use it to build new bone. it reduces blood calcium levels.
activates special cells in bone to dissolve the bone to release calcium into the blood
two hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that increase and prolong the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex steroids
three types of steroids secreted by the adrenal cortex
steroid hormone that causes the liver to produce glucose from fats and to release the glucose into the blood, which is known as gluconeogenesis (cortisol)
this hormone-type is primarily aldosterone, which causes the kidney to retain sodium, which removes sodium from the urine and return it to the body
this hormone is secreted when blood glucose levels are high, such as after a meal, by allowing cells to take glucose out of the body
this hormone is released when blood glucose is low, and causes the liver to break down glycogen and release free glucose into the blood
male sex steroids produced by the testes, which develop male secondary sex characteristics during puberty and maintain them in adulthood
estrogens, progesterone, estradiol
three hormones produced by the ovaries, which are responsible for developing female secondary sex characteristics during puberty and maintaining them in adulthood
hormone which stimulates the growth of the uterine lining in the first half of the menstrual cycle
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