103 terms

Ch. 35 Plant Structure, Growth, & Development

info on plant structure from Campbell's Biology textbook, ninth edition
group of cells consisting of 1 or more cell types
- together perform a specialized function
-several types of tissues together that carry out particular functions
3 Basic Plant Organs
leaves, stems, roots
Vegetative Growth
production of non-reproductive leaves, stems and roots
organ that anchors the vascular plant in the soil
- absorbs minerals and water
- stores carbohydrates
- one main vertical root
- develops from an embryonic root
- gives rise to lateral roots
Lateral roots
-a.k.a branch roots
adventitious roots
- grow in an unusual location such as roots arising from stems or leaves
- occurs in many monocots
fibrous root system
a mat of general thin roots spreading out below the soil surface
- do not penetrate deeply, best adapted to areas of light rainfall or shallow soils
Root hairs
- on root tips
- increase the surface area of the root enormously
- main fxn: absorption
Specialized root adaptations
Prop roots, storage roots, buttress roots, "strangling" aerial roots, & pneumatophores
Prop roots
-support the tall top-heavy trees in sandy soils
Storage roots
store food (starch) and water in their roots
Buttress roots
give architectural support to the trunks of trees in the tropics
"Strangling" aerial roots
- the strangler fig germinates in the branches of the tall trees
- they send snakelike roots that wrap around the host trees
- the host tree eventually dies from shading of the fig leaves
-aka air roots
- Ex: mangroves
- roots project above the water line, enabling the roots to obtain oxygen, which is lacking in the watery mud
-organ that raises or separates leaves, exposing them to sunlight
- raise reproductive structures for fruit and pollen dispersal
- consists of nodes and internodes
points at which leaves are attached
stem segments between nodes
Axillary bud
- in the upper angle(axil) formed by each leaf an the stem
- can form a lateral shoot (a branch)
Apical bud
- aka terminal bud
- area where most of the growth of a shoot begins
- composed of developing leaves and a compact series of nodes and internodes
Apical dominance
- the inhibition of axillary buds by an apical bud
- removing the apical bud stimulates the growth of axillary buds
Modified Stem Adaptations
- Rhizomes, Bulbs, Stolons, and Tubers
- a horizontal shoot that grow just below the surface
- vertical shoots emerge from axillary buds on the rhizome
- consist of enlarged bases of leaves that store food
- Ex: onion
- horizontal shoots that grow along the surface
- enable a plant to reproduce asexually
Ex: strawberries
-Ex: potatoes
- enlarged ends of stolons or rhizomes specialized for storing food
main photosynthetic organ
- consist of a blade & petiole
-flattened photosynthetic part
- the stalk
- joins the leaf to the stem at a node
- grasses & many monocots lack these
vascular tissue of leaves
- monocots - parallel veins
-eudicots- branching network of veins
Simple Leaf
single undivided blade
- some can be deeply lobed
Compound leaf
blade consists of multiple leaflets
- a leaflet has no axillary bud at its base
Doubly compound leaf
each leaflet is divided into smaller leaflets
Ex: fern
Advantage of compound leaves
- withstands strong wind with less tearing
- can confine some pathogens
Leaf Adaptations
tendrils, spines, storage leaves, reproductive leaves, and bracts
forms a coil that brings the plant closer to a support structure
- on cacti - provide some shading and protection
Storage Leaves
succulents- storage water in their leaves
Reproductive leaves
some succulents produce adventitious plantlets which fall off the leaf and take root in the soil
ex: Poinsettia
- brightly colored leaves that attract pollinators
- often mistaken for petals
Dermal Tissue System
plant's outer protective covering
-consists of epidermis, cuticle, and periderm
- 1st line of defense against of pathogens and physical damage
- layer of tightly packed cells in nonwoody plants
waxy coating on the epidermal surface
- helps prevent water loss
- in leaves and most stems
- in woody plants, it replaces the epidermis in older regions of stems and roots
hairlike outgrowths of the shoot epidermis
- reduce water loss and reflect excess light
- major fxn: provide defense against insects by secreting sticky fluids to stop insects from eating them
Vascular tissue system
- consists of xylem and phloem
- carries out long distance transport of materials between roots and shoots
- conducts water and minerals up from roots to shoots
- transports sugars from where they are made to where they are needed
- the vascular tissue of a root or stem
Ground Tissue system
- neither part of the dermal or vascular tissue
- two types: pith and cortex
ground tissue that is internal to the vascular tissue
ground tissue that is external to the vascular tissue
Plant Cell Types
Parenchyma, Collenchyma, Sclerenchyma, Xylem and Phloem
Parenchyma Cells
- mature cells have primary walls, most lack secondary walls
- large central vacuole
- perform most metabollic fxns of the plant
- photosynthesis occurs in chloroplast of parenchyma cells
- fleshy fruits composed of these cells
- store starch in roots and stems
- can grow an entire plant from one of these cells
Collenchyma Cells
- support younger parts of the plant shoot
- elongated and have thicker primary walls
- ex: the strings of celery
- provide flexible support w/o restraining growth
- living at maturity
Sclerenchyma Cells
- fxn in support
- more rigid than collenchyma cells - contain lignin
- dead at maturity- cannot elongate
2 types of these cells: sclereids and fibers
- boxier than fibers & irregular shape
- used for support and strengthening
- very thick secondary walls
- give nut shells their hardness
long, slender and tapered
- used to make linens
fxn: strength and support
- transports minerals and water
- two types of cells : tracheids & vessel elements
- long, thin and tapered
- water moves through pits, so it doesn't have to cross the thick secondary walls
- dead at maturity
- all vascular plants have these
- walls have lignin
Vessel Elements
- wider and shorter than tracheids
- lignified walls & dead at maturity
- found mainly in angiosperms
- aligned end to end forming miropipes called vessels, with the end walls having perforation plates that enable water to flow freely between them
-moves sugar throughout the plant
- alive at maturity
- 2 types of cells: sieve tube elements and companion cells
Sieve Tube Elements
- transports nutrients in chain of sieve tubes
- lack a nucleus, ribosomes, vacuole, and cytoskeletal elements --> allows nutrients to pass more easily
- end walls of the sieve tubes are seperated by the sieve plates that have pores to facilitate flow through the sieve tubes
Companion cells
- non- conducting cell found along side the sieve tube elements
- connected via plasmodesmata
- help load sugars into the sieve tube elements
Indeterminate Growth
- process of growth that continues all throughout a plant's life
areas of undifferentiated growth that divide and lead to new cells that elongate
- 2 types: apical and lateral meristems
Apical meristems
- located at the tips of roots and shoots and in axillary buds of shoots
- provide additional cells that enable growth in length
primary growth
growth in length in the vertical direction
- allows roots to extend in the soil and shoots to increase their exposure to light
Secondary growth
growth in thickness
- caused by lateral meristems
- occurs in roots and woody stems
- rarely seen in monocots
Lateral meristems
- called vascular and cork cambiums
Vascular cambium
adds layers of vascular tissue called the secondary xylem and phloem
Cork cambium
replaces the epidermis with thicker periderm
- adds secondary dermal tissue
- complete life cycle( germination to flowering to seed production to death) in a year or less
- require two growing seasons to complete thier life cycle, flowering only in the second year
- live many years and include trees, shrubs, and grasses
Root cap
- covers the root tip
- protects the apical meristem as the root pushes through the soil
- secretes polysaccharide slime to lubricate soil around the root tip
Zones of Growth in a Root
Zones of Cell division, elongation, and maturation (differentiation)
Zone of Cell Division
- includes the root apical meristem
- new root cells are produced here
Zone of Elongation
- most of the growth occurs here
- cells elongate, pushing the root tip further into the soil
Zone of Differentiation
- cells complete their formation into specialized functioning cells and become distinct cell types
Root Cross section of a Eudicot
- vascular tissue(xylem and phloem) is in the center in the shape of an "X"
Root Cross section of a Monocot
- vascular tissue is in the center but more spread out in a circle with a core of parenchyma cells in the very center
-innermost layer of the cortex
- surrounds the vascular cylinder
- regulates passage of substances from the soil into the vascular tissue
- where lateral roots grow from
- outermost cell layer in the vascular cylinder
- a ring just inside the endodermis
Leaf primordia
-finger like projections on either side of the apical meristem in a shoot tip
- part of shoot primary growth
- arises from the activation of axillary buds
- the closer the axillary bud is to an active apical bud, the more inhibited it is
Lateral shoots
- develop from axillary bud meristems on the stem's surface and disrupt no other tissues
Cross section of a Eudicot stem
- vascular tissue is arranged in a ring
- xylem is on the inside and phloem on the outside
Cross section of a Monocot stem
vascular bundles are all scattered throughout the stem
- don't graph well
- look like a monkey face
- located on the epidermis of leaves
- allow gas exchange (CO2 and O2) between leaf and air
- major avenue for evaporative water loss
- surrounded by 2 guard cells
Guard Cell
- regulate the opening and closing of the stomata pore
ground tissue of a leaf
- in between the upper and lower epidermis layers
2 layers: palisade and spongy mesophyll
Palisade mesophyll
- has parenchyma cells specialized for photosynthesis
- upper layer of mesophyll
Spongy mesophyll
- parenchyma cells are arranged loosely with air spaces so that oxygen can circulate around
Bundle sheath
- parenchyma cells that surround the vein of vascular tissue in a plant leaf
Vascular cambium
- adds layers of secondary xylem to its interior and secondary phloem to its exterior--> thickens roots and stems
- the layers of xylem (wood) accumulates over the years = tree rings
-older secondary xylem usually gets sloughed off-does not accumulate like the xylem in a tree
Vascular rays
- radial files of parenchyma cells that connect the secondary xylem and phloem
-fxn: aid in wound repair, store carbs, and move water and nutrients between the xylem & phloem
- everything exterior to the vascular cambium
- secondary xylem, cork, cork cambium
cork and the cork cambium
- layers of secondary xylem that no longer transports water and minerals
- closer to the center of a stem or root
- darker colored than sapwood
- newest, outer layers of secondary xylem that still transport water and minerals
Asymmetrical cell division
- one daughter cell receives more cytoplasm than the other during mitosis
- how guard cells form around the stomata