Psychology Chapter 9 Motivation Study Guide and Q&A
The process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met is called a) motivation. b) emotion. c) achievement. d) synergy.
Which statement about motivation is true? a) A motive energizes and directs behavior. b) We are always aware of motivational processes. c) Different motives always lead to different behaviors. d) Two people motivated by the same factor will satisfy that motive through similar means.
a) A motive energizes and directs behavior.
In the early twentieth century, psychologists were inclined to explain motivated behavior by attributing it to a) emotions. b) incentives. c) learned responses. d) instincts.
Instinct theory was one of the first proposed theories of motivation in psychology. Be careful not to confuse incentive with instincts!
Each of the following is a valid criticism of instinct theories of motivation EXCEPT a) human behavior is rarely rigid, inflexible, and found throughout the species. b) instinct theories name behaviors without pinpointing their origins. c) they were the dominant explanation for human behavior early in the twentieth century. d) description is less important than explanation.
c) they were the dominant explanation for human behavior early in the twentieth century.
This is not a criticism but simply a statement.
Salmon swimming upstream to spawn are an example of a) incentives. b) motives. c) instinct. d) needs.
Instincts are innate, biologically determined behaviors.
Drives serve to activate responses that are aimed at reducing the drive, thereby returning the body to a more normal state called a) stability. b) equilibrium. c) homeostasis. d) physiological balance.
Homeostasis is the term psychologists and physiologists use to refer to the body's state of balance. Equilibrium means the same thing but is not the term used by psychologists.
Some psychologists believe that behavior is motivated by the body's attempts to achieve a state of balance in which the body functions effectively, or in a) reciprocity. b) acquiescence. c) propinquity. d) homeostasis
Homeostasis is a sense of balance.
Primary drives are a) exceptions to the drive-reduction principle. b) learned. c) influenced by stimuli within the body. d) influenced by stimuli outside the body.
c) influenced by stimuli within the body.
These internal stimuli would include things such as hunger or thirst.
Monica put all her time and energy into getting into the acting club because her main goal in life "was to be a famous star!" Monica's drive to be famous was a ______ drive. a) primary b) reflexive c) tertiary d) secondary
Secondary drives are drives that we acquire through learning. The drive to be famous is learned
Which of the following is correct for people high in need achievement? a) They look for careers that make a lot of money. b) They look for careers and hobbies that allow others to evaluate them. c) They look for careers that require little education. d) They look for careers that will make them famous.
b) They look for careers and hobbies that allow others to evaluate them
High achievers need feedback from others.
According to Carol Dweek, need achievement is closely related to a) genetics. b) geography. c) luck. d) personal factors
d) personal factors
There was no mention of genetics in her theory, but there was considerable discussion about an individual's sense of self and views on intelligence.
In arousal theory, people are said to have a(n) _________ level of tension. a) ultimate b) lower c) optimal d) high
Arousal theory argues that arousal should be neither too high nor too low.
Indiana Jones goes off to foreign lands in search of artifacts hidden in dangerous places and guarded by fierce protectors. Dr. Jones would be described as _______________ in arousal theory. a) a sensation seeker b) nAff c) fool-hardy d) high nPow
a) a sensation seeker
His actions indicate that he needs a higher level of arousal than most people.
As a class assignment you are required to collect advertising slogans and describe how they may be relevant to concepts in psychology. You select the Jell-O slogan, "There's always room for Jell-O," and describe in class that it is relevant to one of the theories of motivation. Which theory? a) instinctive b) incentive c) drive-reduction d) optimum-level
Incentive theory suggests that we often eat food items because of their reward value and not simply because we are hungry.
One interesting thing about incentive approaches is that incentives a)exist inside a narrow collection of internal stimuli. b) exist independently of any need or level of arousal. c) exist inside a narrow collection of internal stimuli. d) only work for adults.
b) exist independently of any need or level of arousal.
Incentives motivate behavior regardless of a specific need or arousal level.
Jill is motivated by money and the things money will bring her. Jack is motivated by doing good things, and his incentives are based on that idea and belief. What theory incorporates both these types of motivational causes? a) sensation-seeking theory b) entity theory c) increment theory d) expectancy-value theory
d) expectancy-value theory
Expectancy value theory states that the values of a person determine his or her motivation levels
According to Abraham Maslow, developing one's potential to its fullest extent results in a) safety. b) self-esteem. c) belongingness. d) self-actualization.
Self-actualization is at the top of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Which of the following fails to show the motivating power of self-actualization? a) Joan wants to live in a house with all the modern conveniences so that she may have more time to seek fulfillment from her career and family. b) Frank feels that he is a good salesman because he likes what he does and knows how to do it well. c) Barbara knows that, as a teacher, she is a good person because she realizes the importance of imparting knowledge to society. d) Mark works hard as an attorney only so that he can attract more clients, more money, and be secure in the knowledge that his family can survive.
d) Mark works hard as an attorney only so that he can attract more clients, more money, and be secure in the knowledge that his family can survive.
This is the only situation in which the person is focusing on basic needs for himself and his family. In all the other examples, the individuals were focused on growth needs.
Self-determination theory (SDT) best fits which type of motivation? a) the need for affiliation b) intrinsic motivation c) extrinsic motivation d) a mastery goal
b) intrinsic motivation
Self-determination theory is characterized by intrinsic motivations.
Intrinsic motivation is defined as a) the pursuit of an activity for external rewards. b) the pursuit of an activity for its own sake. c) the pursuit of an activity to relieve the state of tension caused by deprivation. d) the pursuit of an activity in order to be judged favorably by others.
b) the pursuit of an activity for its own sake.
All the other motivations are based on external factors. Intrinsic motivation deals with forces within the individual.
One factor in hunger seems to be the increase in _______ that occurs after we begin to eat. a) cholesterol b) lipoproteins c) insulin d) glucose
Insulin is associated with feelings of hunger and is related to blood sugar levels.
The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) may be involved in a) increasing hunger. b) decreasing hunger. c) processing low fats. d) food allergies.
b) decreasing hunger.
When the ventromedial hypothalamus was removed in experimental animals, the animals no longer controlled their eating and became extremely obese.
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) may be involved in a) stoppage of eating. b) the onset of eating. c) processing low fats. d) food allergies
b) the onset of eating.
When the lateral hypothalamus was removed in experimental animals, the animals stopped eating and had to be force-fed food.
Anna weighed about 125 pounds most of her adult life. However, it seemed like whenever Anna gained weight it was easy to lose and get back to 125. But when she wanted to go below 125 it took forever and even the slightest deviation from her diet got her back to 125. What explanation would you give Anna? a) Use better diet products. b) Start a reality TV show. c) Her weight, 125, is her set point. Leave it alone. d) Her BMR is causing all the problems.
c) Her weight, 125, is her set point. Leave it alone
The set point is the level of weight the body tends to maintain.
The concept of "comfort food" suggests that food a) may be influenced by social factors. b) has genetic ways to comfort. c) may release hormones and neurotransmitters that are comforting. d) is reflexive
a) may be influenced by social factors
Factors in hunger include the social cues associated with food.
Which component of hunger is most likely contributing to the fact that sometimes a person who has just had a late breakfast will still feel hungry at noon? a) social b) behavioral c) physiological d) intrinsic
Social factors can have a strong impact on feelings of hunger.
Which individual has the highest risk for developing anorexia nervosa? a) lower-class 26-year-old European man b) an upper-class 16-year-old American boy c) a lower-class 26-year-old European woman d) an upper-class 16-year-old American girl
d) an upper-class 16-year-old American girl
According to government statistics, white upper-class females in the United States show the highest prevalence rates for anorexia.
An eating disorder characterized by binges of eating followed by self-induced vomiting is called a) anorexia nervosa b) bulimia c) Karposi's anemia d) Huntington's chorea
This is the definition given in the textbook. Note that the vomiting distinguishes bulimia from anorexia.
All of the following statements are correct about bulimia EXCEPT a) individuals with bulimia have a distorted view of how much food is too much food. b) bulimia is not as damaging as anorexia nervosa. c) binge eating and vomiting are common symptoms. d) individuals with bulimia have a distorted body image.
b) bulimia is not as damaging as anorexia nervosa.
Although the damage from bulimia is different than that from anorexia, it is still a very dangerous disorder.
Which of the following describes a hormone that is secreted into the bloodstream by fatty tissue and signals to the hypothalamus that the body has enough food, reducing appetite and increasing the feeling of being full? a) adrenalin b) peptic acid c) leptin d) Lippotor
Leptin appears to be the hormone that causes you to feel full.
What Latin word connects both motive and emotion? a) emote b) move c) mote d) mate
This is the definition given in your textbook.
Paul Ekman and his colleagues gathered abundant evidence supporting the universality of _______ basic facial expressions of emotion. a) three b) five c) seven d) nine
The research found seven facial expressions that appear to be universal.
According to Ekman, which of the following is not one of the universal facial expressions? a) disgust b) fear c) contempt d) shame
Shame was not found in all cultures. The seven facial expressions he did find were anger, fear, disgust, happiness, surprise, sadness, and contempt.
To explain the human universality and variability of emotions, Ekman and his associates a) developed a concept of "display rules," which are rules for emotional expression. b) developed an interobserver system to make sure that observers defined expressions reliably. c) interviewed all participants in order to assess unexpressed feelings and motivations. d) monitored the brain waves of participants to determine which hemisphere had higher activation
a) developed a concept of "display rules," which are rules for emotional expression.
Ekman found that display rules tend to vary across cultures, whereas the recognition of basic emotions tends to be universal.
Which one of the following is not one of the three elements of emotion discussed in the text? a) physiology b) labeling c) behavior d) environment
Emotion was broken down into its physical, behavioral, and subjective (or labeling) components.
Which theory states that a stimulus triggers physiological changes that produce emotion? a) Cannon-Bard theory b) James-Lange theory c) cognitive arousal theory d) common sense view of emotions
b) James-Lange theory
The James-Lange theory states that the changes in our body come first, followed by our subjective experience of an emotion.
Which statement is most consistent with the James-Lange theory of emotion? a) "I run because I'm afraid." b) "I'm laughing because I am happy." c) "I'm crying because I'm sad." d) "I'm anxious because I perspire."
d) "I'm anxious because I perspire."
The physiological change comes before the experience of the emotion.
What is the correct sequence of events in emotional response according to the Cannon-Bard theory? a) stimulus → emotion → physiological changes b) stimulus → physiological changes → emotion c) physiological changes → stimulus → emotion d) stimulus → emotion AND physiological changes (simultaneous)
d) stimulus → emotion AND physiological changes (simultaneous)
Cannon-Bard believed the subjective and physiological experience occurred simultaneously.
"I think I'm afraid, therefore I am afraid" is a statement that is most consistent with which of the following theories? a) the James-Lange theory b) activation theory c) cognitive arousal theory d) the Cannon-Bard theory
c) cognitive arousal theory
The cognitive aspect (or thinking component) is the factor that determines your emotions according to the cognitive arousal theory.
According to the theory of emotion proposed by Schachter and Singer, what is the most important determinant of your subjective experience of emotion? a) physiological reactions b) cognitive appraisal of the situation c) facial expressions d) intensity of the stimulus
b) cognitive appraisal of the situation
Schachter and Singer's theory suggests that one's appraisal of a situation determines one's subjective emotional response to a stimulus.
In the classic study of emotion conducted by Schachter and Singer, after receiving the epinephrine, the subjects placed in the room with the angry man reported feeling a) angry. b) happy. c) both angry and happy. d) no emotions.
In accordance with Schachter and Singer's theory, the participants use the environmental cues of an angry co-subject to determine that their own arousal was due to anger as well.
According to the facial feedback hypothesis, if you would like to make yourself feel more happy you should a) spend time with friends. b) talk to a counselor. c) think about all the positive aspects of your life. d) smile.
The facial feedback hypothesis proposes that our brain receives feedback on our facial expressions that then serves to enhance whatever emotion we are expressing.
According to the cognitive-mediational theory, which factor would be most important in determining whether you feel nervous when asked to speak in front of the class? a) your physiological reaction to the request b) activation of subcortical brain activity c) your cognitive appraisal of the situation d) your change in blood pressure
c) your cognitive appraisal of the situation
The cognitive-mediational theory states that a stimulus must be interpreted, or appraised, by a person in order to result in a physical response to an emotional situation.