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Skeletal System A&P

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ligament
flexible band of connective tissue that connects bone to bone
cartilage
tough, flexible tissue that covers the ends of bones and decreases friction
bone marrow
soft connective tissue within the medullary cavities of bones which produces blood cells
medullary cavity
cavity within the shaft of the long bones filled with bone marrow
axial skeleton
bones of skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
appendicular skeleton
forms the extremities and is composed of the shoulder girdle, arm bones, pelvic girdle, and leg bones
compact bone
hard, dense bone tissue, usually found around the outer portion of bones
spongy bone
located toward the end of long bone; contains small open spaces which lightens bone
innervated
contains nerve fibers
vascular
contains blood vessels
osteocyte
mature bone cell
osteoblast
cells that make bone
osteoclast
cell that breaks down bone
chondrocyte
mature cartilage cell
osteon
unit of compact bone; made up of concentric circles called Haversian canals
epiphyseal plate
growth plate, made of cartilage found near the ends of long bones; gradually turns to bone as skeleton matures
bone remodeling
ongoing replacement of old bone tissue by new bone tissue
parathyroid hormone
hormone that stimulates calcium release from bones
calcitonin
hormone that increases the deposition of calcium into the bones
closed fracture
broken bone with no break in the skin
open fracture
broken ends of the bone protrude through the skin
comminuted fracture
bone breaks into many fragments
greenstick fracture
only one side of the bone shaft is broken, and the other is bent; most often seen in children
transverse fracture
break is perpendicular to the long axis of the bone
compression fracture
fracture in which the bone collapses especially in short bones such as vertebrae
stress fracture
small crack in the bone that often develops from chronic, excessive impact
spiral fracture
ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone
hematoma
localized swelling filled with blood
bony callus
osteoblasts produce a mass of spongy bone and convert the fibrocartilage to a bony callus as a fracture heals
bony landmark
unique mark or protrusion on bone that provides a site for muscle or ligament attachment or nerve or blood vessel passage
cervical
vertebrae of the neck
thoracic
vertebrae of the chest or thorax
lumbar
vertebrae of the lower back
sacrum
wedge-shaped bone consisting of five fused vertebrae connecting the two pelvic bones
coccyx
tail-bone
suture
immovable joint that connects the bones of the skull
mandible
lower jaw bone
maxilla
upper jaw bone
frontal bone
forms the forehead
parietal bones
two bones on the side and top of the skull
temporal bone
two bones that form the lateral aspects and floor of the skull
occipital bone
bone found at the back and base of the skull
foramen magnum
large opening at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes
intervertebral discs
fibrous cartilage between vertebrae which provide shock absorption and flexibility
costal cartilage
cartilage that connects the sternum and the ends of the ribs
pectoral girdle
clavicle and scapula; anchors the upper limb
pelvic girdle
pelvis; anchors the lower limb
sternum
breast bone; between the ribs
clavicle
collar bone; links the scapula and sternum
scapula
shoulder blade
humerus
upper arm bone
radius
forearm bone on the thumb side
ulna
forearm bone on the pinkie finger side
carpals
wrist bones
metacarpals
bones of the palm of the hand
phalanges
fingers or toes
coxal bone
hip or pelvic bone; consists of ilium, ischium, and pubis
femur
thigh bone
tibia
medial, thicker bone of the lower leg; shin
fibula
lateral, thinner bone of the lower leg
medial malleolus
medial projection of distal end of the tibia
lateral malleolus
lateral projection of distal end of the fibula
patella
knee cap
tarsals
ankle bones
metatarsals
bones forming the arch of the foot
synovial joint
freely movable joint containing a cavity filled with synovial fluid
hinge joint
a joint allowing movement in one plane only, ex. elbow
pivot joint
freely moving joint in which movement is limited to rotation, ex. atlas-axis of the neck
ball and socket joint
joint that allows limb to move freely in a circle; found in shoulders and hips
osteoarthritis
progressive, degenerative joint disease characterized by loss of articular cartilage
bursa
fluid-filled fibrous sac between certain tendons and bones
tendon
band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone
fontanelle
soft membranous spot between the skull bones of an infant
synarthroses
immovable joints
amphiarthroses
slightly movable joints
diarthroses
freely movable joints
zygomatic
cheekbone