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Bio 2 Chapter 22 Mastering Quiz
Terms in this set (16)
Which statement shows population thinking?
- Species do not change over time.
- A single perfect specimen can represent a species.
- Variation among individuals in a species is real and important.
- All species can be organized into a sequence of increasing complexity.
Variation among individuals in a species is real and important.
It was once thought that variation within a species represented flaws or imperfections. In Darwinian thought, variations are real and are important because natural selection can act to favor some variations over others.
Why are human and chimpanzee DNA 96 percent similar?
-Natural selection has favored those particular genes in both humans and chimpanzees.
-Both groups show similarities in their fossil record.
-Humans and chimpanzees share several similar traits such as the use of tools.
-These two species descended from a recent common ancestor.
These two species descended from a recent common ancestor.
The two species inherited this large amount of common DNA from their common ancestor.
Which of the following statements is correct?
-Fossils from rocks under other rocks are younger than the fossils found above them.
-Fossils form only from the hard parts of extinct organisms.
-Most fossils formed during a few catastrophic events.
-Fossils form in sedimentary rocks.
Fossils form in sedimentary rocks.
Igneous rocks (formed from molten rock) and metamorphic rock (formed under extreme heat or pressure) are formed in conditions that will usually destroy or severely damage a dead organism or a previously formed fossil.
The fossil record resembles the living species in the same geographic area. How does this pattern support the theory of evolution by natural selection?
-It is evidence of Aristotle's great chain of being.
-It is evidence that species can change over time.
-It is evidence that Lamarck was right: species become more complex over time.
-It is evidence of the law of succession.
It is evidence that species can change over time
It shows that the fossil species group is not a random assemblage but is the precursor to the modern assemblage.
Which statement about vestigial traits is correct?
-Vestigial traits improve the biological fitness of individuals.
-Humans lack vestigial traits.
-Vestigial traits are similar to functional traits in closely related species.
-Vestigial traits cannot be explained by the theory of evolution by natural selection.
Vestigial traits are similar to functional traits in closely related species.
A vestigial trait does not randomly arise but evolves from a once-functional trait when the trait is no longer adaptive.
Why do related species share homologous traits?
-Related species have adapted to similar environments
-Related species inherited homologous traits from a common ancestor
-Related species share homologous traits because they are found in the same geographical area.
-Related species have independently evolved homologous traits.
Related species inherited homologous traits from a common ancestor.
This is one of the fundamental concepts behind cladistics: that traits do not arise randomly, but are the result of evolution, and that closely related species will share more homologous traits than distantly related species.
What is biological fitness?
-Biological fitness measures the overall health of an individual
-Biological fitness measures the life span of an individual
-Biological fitness measures the reproductive success of an individual relative to others in the population
-Biological fitness measures the number of offspring produced by an individual
Biological fitness measures the reproductive success of an individual relative to others in the population.
Biological fitness is a measure of reproductive success. The term relative refers to the fact that natural selection favors the heritable traits of individuals who have greater reproductive success than other individuals in the population.
In biology, an adaptation is defined as what?
-A change in an individual's body in response to changes in environmental conditions
-A change in an individual's behavior in response to changes in environmental conditions
-A heritable trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment
-A change in an individual's DNA sequence
A heritable trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment
A trait that leads to higher fitness, relative to individuals without the trait, is an adaptation.
Which statement is correct?
-Natural selection can change an individual's allele frequencies
-Populations can evolve, but individuals cannot
-Natural selection chooses between populations, not individuals
-Evolutionary change is not always due to genetic changes in a population over time
Populations can evolve, but individuals cannot
Evolution is a change in the genetic makeup of a population
Which is an example of a structural homology?
-The same group of embryonic cells forms the adult jaw of a perch and of a dog
-All organisms share a common genetic code
-Vertebrae forelimbs generally have the same number and a similar arrangement of bones
-All vertebrate embryos form pharyngeal pouches
Vertebrate forelimbs generally have the same number and a similar arrangement of bones
A structural homology is a similarity in adult morphology or form such as the common structural plan observed in the limbs of vertebrates
Which of the following results in the creation of gene families?
Which of the following is an orphan gene?
-A gene found only in animals
-A gene found only in a certain organism
-A gene found only in vertebrates
-A gene found only in mammals
A gene found only in a certain organism
Which of the following is true?
-Once a de novo gene is in a species' DNA, it will remain there
-De novo genes can be lost
-De novo genes are found only in humans
-Mutations do not affect de novo genes
De novo genes can be lost
Why did Darwin document and describe vestigial traits?
-Vestigial traits indicate that species do not change over time. This opposes the theory of evolution but is consistent with the theory of special creation.
-Vestigial traits result from convergent evolution. This is an important pattern component of the theory of evolution and is inconsistent with the theory of special creation.
-Vestigial traits indicate that species change over time. This is an important pattern component of the theory of evolution and is inconsistent with the theory of special creation.
-Vestigial traits result from evolutionary mistakes. This is an important pattern component of the theory of evolution and is inconsistent with the theory of special creation
Vestigial traits indicate that species change over time. This is an important pattern component of the theory of evolution and is inconsistent with the theory of special creation.
Darwin documented and described many patterns in nature that are better described by his theory of evolution by natural selection than by any other theory. Vestigial traits could be used to illustrate that species are related, and that change through time does occur. This is also related to the homology of traits that are functional in one species, but vestigial (or reduced) in a closely related species.
True or false? Some traits are considered vestigial because they have no function, or reduced function.
Traits that are derived from a common ancestor, like the bones of human arms and bird wings, are said to be what?
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